Time-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

TitreTime-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSouchay, C, Dubourg, L, Ballhausen, N, Schneider, M, Cerf, C, Schnitzspahn, K, Faivre, L, Kliegel, M, Eliez, S
JournalThe Clinical Neuropsychologist
Pagination1–12
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1385-4046
Mots-clés22q11.2 deletion syndrome, prospective memory, time checking
Résumé

Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and characterized by marked impairment in visual attention and executive function. The present study examined if this cognitive deficit extends to prospective memory (the type of memory involved in remembering to perform actions in the future). Method: 20 participants with 22q11.2DS aged between 6 and 14 were included in the study as well as 22 typically developing individuals (TDC) aged 6–12. To measure prospective memory, participants were asked to play a driving game (the Dresden Cruiser). This time-based prospective memory task required children to remember to refuel their car when the fuel level was low by pressing a refuel button while driving. Results and discussion: Participants with 22q11.2DS remembered less often to refuel the car. Furthermore, participants with 22q11.2DS checked the fuel gage significantly less often than the controls. Conclusions: Participants with 22q11.2DS therefore demonstrate difficulties completing a time-based prospective memory task. This can be explained by a generally less frequent time checking behavior in comparison to TDC.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13854046.2017.1403652
DOI10.1080/13854046.2017.1403652

Four-week strategy-based training to enhance prospective memory in older adults: targeting intention retention is more beneficial than targeting intention formation

TitreFour-week strategy-based training to enhance prospective memory in older adults: targeting intention retention is more beneficial than targeting intention formation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursIhle, A, Albiński, R, Gurynowicz, K, Kliegel, M
JournalGerontology
Volume63
Ticket6
Pagination560–571
Date Published01/2018
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
Mots-clésimagery, old age, prospective memory, Rehearsal, Strategy-based training
Résumé

Background: So far, training of prospective memory (PM) focused on very short instances (single sessions) and targeted the intention-formation phase only. Objective: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 different 4-week strategy-based PM training types, namely imagery training (targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase) versus rehearsal training (targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase) in older adults. Methods: We used a 4-week training protocol (8 sessions in total, 2 sessions per week). From the 44 participants, 21 were randomly assigned to the imagery training (vividly imagining a mental picture to memorize the connection between the PM cue words and related actions during intention formation) and 23 to the rehearsal training (rehearsing the PM cue words during intention retention). The criterion PM task was assessed before and after the training. Results: Comparing the effectiveness of both training types, we found a significant time by training type interaction on PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection, F(1, 42) = 6.07, p = 0.018, η2p = 0.13. Subsequent analyses revealed that the rehearsal training was more effective in enhancing PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection than the imagery training. Conclusion: Strategy-based PM training in older adults targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase may be more effective in enhancing PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection than the strategy targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase. This suggests that for successful prospective remembering, older adults may need more support to keep the PM cues active in memory while working on the ongoing task than to initially encode the PM intention.

URLhttp://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/485796
DOI10.1159/000485796
Short TitleFour-Week Strategy-Based Training to Enhance Prospective Memory in Older Adults
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28675907

Examining the role of rehearsal in old–old adults’ working memory

TitreExamining the role of rehearsal in old–old adults’ working memory
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Rautenberg, M, von Bloh, P, Schnitzspahn, K, Ballhausen, N, Ihle, A, Lagner, P, Kliegel, M, Zinke, K
JournalEuropean Journal of Ageing
Volume74
Pagination26–31
Date Published02/2018
ISSN1613-9380
Mots-clésageing, Old–olds, Rehearsal, Strategy, working memory
Résumé

We investigated the role of rehearsal in verbal working memory (WM) and whether WM capacity can be improved by a rehearsal instruction in very old age. In two experiments, we tested a total of 78 old–old adults (75 years and above) in one experimental session consisting of three assessment phases. First, participants worked on three different WM span tasks to assess their baseline performance. In the next phase, half of the participants received a rehearsal instruction to practice on two of the WM tasks, whereas the other half received no strategy instruction (Experiment 1) or worked on a filler task (Experiment 2). In the final phase, participants again worked on the three WM tasks. In Experiment 1, we found significant improvements for the WM tasks over time in both groups. However, we could not find a specific improvement for the rehearsal instruction due to a high spontaneous strategy use in the control group. When minimizing spontaneous strategy use in Experiment 2 by changing the task material, we found larger improvements in the instruction compared to the control group. However, we still found substantial spontaneous strategy use in the control group. The results indicate that rehearsal, as an essential component of verbal WM, is still intact and efficient in old–old adults. Furthermore, the spontaneous strategy use indicates that old–olds use their existing skills to cope with increasing WM demands. Finally, old–old adults benefited from an explicit rehearsal instruction showing potentials to boost WM capacity in this age group.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10433-018-0461-8
DOI10.1007/s10433-018-0461-8

Frailty in aging and its influence on perceived stress exposure and stress-related symptoms: evidence from the Swiss Vivre/Leben/Vivere study

TitreFrailty in aging and its influence on perceived stress exposure and stress-related symptoms: evidence from the Swiss Vivre/Leben/Vivere study
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursDesrichard, O, Vallet, F, Agrigoroaei, S, Fagot, D, Spini, D
JournalEuropean Journal of Ageing
Pagination1-9
Date Published10/2017
ISSN1613-9372, 1613-9380
Mots-clésfrailty, Perceived stress exposure, Stress-related symptoms, Vivre/Leben/Vivere study
Résumé

Frailty is a core concept in understanding vulnerability and adjustment to stress in older adults. Adopting the perspective provided by the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman in Stress, appraisal, and coping, Springer, New York, 1984), the present study examined three aspects of frailty in older adults: (1) the link between frailty and perceived stress exposure (PSE); (2) the link between frailty and stress-related symptoms (SRS); and (3) the role of frailty in the link between PSE and SRS. Participants were 2711 adults aged between 64 and 101 years who were taking part in the Swiss Vivre/Leben/Vivere study. As well as assessing frailty, we measured PSE and SRS during the 4 weeks preceding the administration of the questionnaires, together with the covariates age, sex, educational attainment, language of the canton, and type of canton (urban vs. rural). Regression analyses revealed higher levels of PSE in frail older adults than in non-frail older adults. In addition, frail older adults reported more SRS than non-frail older adults. As expected, the association between PSE and SRS differed as a function of the frailty status: The positive relation between PSE and SRS being stronger for frail older adults than for non-frail older adults. These results suggest that frailty is related to perceived discrepancy between resources and demands, and to ability to cope with PSE. Our findings have implications for interventions to help frail older adults manage stress.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10433-017-0451-2
DOI10.1007/s10433-017-0451-2

Health Behavior Change in Older Adults: Testing the Health Action Process Approach at the Inter- and Intraindividual Level

TitreHealth Behavior Change in Older Adults: Testing the Health Action Process Approach at the Inter- and Intraindividual Level
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBierbauer, W, Inauen, J, Schaefer, S, Kleemeyer, MMargarethe, Lüscher, J, König, C, Tobias, R, Kliegel, M, Ihle, A, Zimmerli, L, Holzer, BM, Siebenhuener, K, Battegay, E, Schmied, C, Scholz, U
JournalApplied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Volume9
Ticket3
Nombre3
Pagination324–348
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1758-0854
Mots-clésaging, health behavior change, intensive longitudinal methods, medication adherence, physical activity, within-person
Résumé

{Background Health behavior change theories usually claim to be universally and individually applicable. Most research has tested behavior change theories at the interindividual level and within young-to-middle-aged populations. However, associations at the interindividual level can differ substantially from associations at the intraindividual level. This study examines the applicability of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) at the inter- and the intraindividual level among older adults. Methods Two intensive longitudinal studies examined the HAPA model covering two different health behaviors and two different time spans: Study 1 (physical activity

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/aphw.12094
DOI10.1111/aphw.12094
Short TitleHealth Behavior Change in Older Adults

The Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL): a brief, reliable, and valid tool for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies

TitreThe Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL): a brief, reliable, and valid tool for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Volume7
Nombre3
Pagination339–345
ISSN1664-5464
Mots-clésAssessment of cognitive functioning, Interindividual differences, older adults
Résumé

Aims: The present study set out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL) in 2 different samples of older adults. Methods: We assessed COGTEL in 116 older adults, with retest after 7 days to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Moreover, we assessed COGTEL in 868 older adults to evaluate convergent validity to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: Test-retest reliability of the COGTEL total score was good at 0.85 (p

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/479680
DOI10.1159/000479680
Short TitleThe Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL)
Identifiant (ID) PubMed29118786

Association of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age

TitreAssociation of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursCheval, B, Boisgontier, MP, Orsholits, D, Sieber, S, Guessous, I, Gabriel, R, Stringhini, S, Blane, D, van der Linden, BWA, Kliegel, M, Burton-Jeangros, C, Courvoisier, DS, Cullati, S
JournalAge and Ageing
Volume47
Ticket3
Nombre3
Pagination398–407
Date Publishedmay
ISSN1468-2834
Mots-clésageing, hand strength, health, older people, socioeconomic status
Résumé

Background: socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) during a person's lifespan influence a wide range of health outcomes. However, solid evidence of the association of early- and adult-life SEC with health trajectories in ageing is still lacking. This study assessed whether early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength in later life-a biomarker of health-and whether this relationship is caused by adult-life SEC and health behaviours. Methods: we used data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 12-year population-based cohort study with repeated measurement in six waves (2004-15) and retrospective collection of life-course data. Participants' grip strength was assessed by using a handheld dynamometer. Confounder-adjusted logistic mixed-effect models were used to examine the associations of early- and adult-life SEC with the risk of low muscle strength (LMS) in older age. Results: a total of 24,179 participants (96,375 observations) aged 50-96 living in 14 European countries were included in the analyses. Risk of LMS was increased with disadvantaged relative to advantaged early-life SEC. The association between risk of LMS and disadvantaged early-life SEC gradually decreased when adjusting for adult-life SEC for both sexes and with unhealthy behaviours for women. After adjusting for these factors, all associations between risk of LMS and early-life SEC remained significant for women. Conclusion: early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength after adjusting for adult-life SEC and behavioural lifestyle factors, especially in women, which suggests that early life may represent a sensitive period for future health.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/ageing/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ageing/afy003/4855280
DOI10.1093/ageing/afy003

Individual differences in developmental change: quantifying the amplitude and heterogeneity in cognitive change across old age

TitreIndividual differences in developmental change: quantifying the amplitude and heterogeneity in cognitive change across old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursMella, N, Fagot, D, Renaud, O, Kliegel, M, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Nombre10
Pagination1-14
Date Published02/2018
Mots-cléscognitive aging, cognitive heterogeneity, individual differences, longitudinal method
Résumé

It is well known that cognitive decline in older adults is of smaller amplitude in longitudinal than in cross-sectional studies. Yet, the measure of interest rests generally with aggregated group data. A focus on individual developmental trajectories is rare, mainly because it is difficult to assess intraindividual change reliably. Individual differences in developmental trajectories may differ quantitatively (e.g., larger or smaller decline) or qualitatively (e.g., decline vs improvement), as well as in the degree of heterogeneity of change across different cognitive domains or different tasks. The present paper aims at exploring, within the Geneva Variability Study, individual change across several cognitive domains in 92 older adults (aged 59–89 years at baseline) over a maximum of seven years and a half. Two novel, complementary methods were used to explore change in cognitive performance while remaining entirely at the intra-individual level. A bootstrap based confidence interval was estimated, for each participant and for each experimental condition, making it possible to define three patterns: stability, increase or decrease in performance. Within-person ANOVAs were also conducted for each individual on all the tasks. Those two methods allowed quantifying the direction, the amplitude and the heterogeneity of change for each individual. Results show that trajectories differed widely among individuals and that decline is far from being the rule.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/10
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010010
Short TitleIndividual Differences in Developmental Change

Les contours du concept de vulnérabilité

TitreLes contours du concept de vulnérabilité
Type de publicationConference Paper
Year of Publication2017
AuteursOris, M
Conference NameXVIè colloque national de démographie et d'études des populations: Les populations vulnérables
PublisherCUDEP
Place PublishedBordeaux, France
Citation Keyoris_michel_les_2017

Periurbanization and the transformation of the urban mortality gradient in Switzerland

TitrePeriurbanization and the transformation of the urban mortality gradient in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursLerch, M, Oris, M, Wanner, P
JournalPopulation, English edition
Volume72
Nombre1
Pagination93–122
ISSN1958-9190
Mots-clésmultilevel analysis, periurbanization, Switzerland, urban living, urban mortality, urbanization
Résumé

While regional differences in life expectancy have flattened out in Switzerland, we investigate the effect of periurbanization on the geography of mortality. Using data from vital statistics and censuses, we find an increasing intra-urban differentiation of mortality since 1980, especially in the largest and most recently sprawling cities. A non-linear gradient, in which life expectancy is lower in city centres and rural areas than in urban agglomeration belts, has emerged. Age- and cause-specific mortality profiles suggest that lifestyles specific to the population of the city centres and related to the spatial concentration of disadvantaged groups play a dominant role in shaping this pattern. Considering mortality at ages 20-64, a multilevel model applied to census-linked mortality data shows how the mortality advantage observed in periurban areas can be explained by a concentration of highly educated individuals and of families. Excess mortality at ages 20-64 in city centres, by contrast, arises from more deprived material and social living environments. However, these socioeconomic consequences of periurbanization fail to account for the urban mortality gradient observed among older people.

Mientras que las diferencias regionales de mortalidad en Suiza han prácticamente desaparecido ¿qué efectos produce la peri-urbanización sobre la geografía de la mortalidad? A partir de datos del estado civil y de los censos, se observa un aumento de los diferenciales intra-urbanos de mortalidad desde 1980, particularmente en las ciudades más grandes o en las que han crecido recientemente. El gradiente que aparece no es linear: la esperanza de vida es más baja en el centro de las ciudades y en las zonas rurales que en la cintura de las aglomeraciones urbanas. Los perfiles de mortalidad por edad y causa sugieren que este fenómeno se debe tanto a los estilos de vida propios a los residentes del centro de las ciudades como a la concentración espacial de los grupos desfavorecidos. Un modelo multinivel aplicado a los datos de la mortalidad a 20-64 años asociados a los censos, muestra que la menor mortalidad observada en las zonas periurbanas se debe a la concentración de individuos muy instruidos y de familias. Por el contrario, la mortalidad excesiva de los 20-64 anos en el centro de las ciudades refleja desventajas materiales y sociales. Sin embargo, las consecuencias socioeconómicas de la periurbanización no son suficientes para explicar el gradiente de la mortalidad urbana observado en las personas mayores.

URLhttps://muse.jhu.edu/article/658434

On the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach

TitreOn the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursLerch, M, Spoerri, A, Jasilionis, D, Fernandèz, FViciana
JournalPopulation Health Metrics
Volume15
Ticket26
Pagination1-15
Date Published07/2017
ISSN1478-7954
Mots-clésAndalusia, Finland, Indirect estimation, Linked data, Lithuania, mortality, Quality assessment, Socioeconomic differentials of mortality, Switzerland
Résumé

Background Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status. However, the plausibility of mortality estimates has never been scrutinized from a demographic perspective, and the potential problems with the quality of the data on the at-risk populations have been overlooked. Methods Using indirect demographic estimation (i.e., the synthetic extinct generation method), we analyze the plausibility of old-age mortality estimates according to educational attainment in four European data contexts with different quality issues: deterministic and probabilistic linkage of deaths, as well as differences in the methodology of the collection of educational data. We evaluate whether the at-risk population according to educational attainment is misclassified and/or misestimated, correct these biases, and estimate the education-specific linkage rates of deaths. Results The results confirm a good linkage of death records within different educational strata, even when probabilistic matching is used. The main biases in mortality estimates concern the classification and estimation of the person-years of exposure according to educational attainment. Changes in the census questions about educational attainment led to inconsistent information over time, which misclassified the at-risk population. Sample censuses also misestimated the at-risk populations according to educational attainment. Conclusion The synthetic extinct generation method can be recommended for quality assessments of linked data because it is capable not only of quantifying linkage precision, but also of tracking problems in the population data. Rather than focusing only on the quality of the linkage, more attention should be directed towards the quality of the self-reported socioeconomic status at censuses, as well as towards the accurate estimation of the at-risk populations.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513033/
DOI10.1186/s12963-017-0143-3
Short TitleOn the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28705165

Prospective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity

TitreProspective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Inauen, J, Scholz, U, König, C, Holzer, B, Zimmerli, L, Battegay, E, Tobias, R, Kliegel, M
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Adult
Volume24
Ticket6
Pagination505–511
ISSN2327-9095
Mots-clésforgetting, medication adherence, multimorbidity, prospective remembering
Résumé

We investigated the relations of self-rated omission errors (i.e., forgetting to take one’s medication) and commission errors (i.e., unnecessary repetitions of medication intake because of forgetting that it has already been taken) in medication adherence in multimorbidity to prospective and retrospective memory performance. Moreover, we examined whether these relations were moderated by the number of medications that had to be taken. Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity (aged 28–84 years, M = 62.4) reported medication adherence regarding the last seven days and the number of medications they had to take. In addition, we administered psychometric tests on prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory performance. We found that reported omission errors in medication adherence were related significantly to lower PM performance. This relationship was increased in individuals with a lower number of medications. In comparison, reported commission errors in medication adherence were related significantly to lower retrospective memory performance. This relationship was increased in individuals with a larger number of medications. Present data suggest that omission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity may reflect primarily PM errors, particularly if few medications have to be taken, while commission errors may reflect mainly retrospective memory failures, especially with a large number of medications that need to be taken as prescribed. From an applied neuropsychological perspective, these results underline the importance of trying to enhance PM and retrospective memory performance in patients with multimorbidity.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2016.1209675
DOI10.1080/23279095.2016.1209675
Identifiant (ID) PubMed27450575

Vies musiciennes. Portrait des musiciens ordinaires en Suisse romande

TitreVies musiciennes. Portrait des musiciens ordinaires en Suisse romande
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPerrenoud, M, Bataille, P
ÉditeurRiom, L, Perrenoud, M
Book TitleLa musique en Suisse sous le regard des sciences sociales
Nombre35
Pagination101–126
PublisherSociograph
Place PublishedGeneva, Switzerland

Active labour market policies for an inclusive growth

TitreActive labour market policies for an inclusive growth
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBonoli, G
ÉditeurDeeming, C, Smyth, P
Book TitleReframing Global Social Policy: Social Investment for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
Edition1
Pagination169–187
PublisherThe Policy Press
Place PublishedBristol

Lone Parenthood in the Life Course

TitreLone Parenthood in the Life Course
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
Volume8
Number of Pages338
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-63293-3, 978-3-319-63295-7
Résumé

Lone parenthood is an increasing reality in the 21st century, reinforced by the diffusion of divorce and separation. This volume provides a comprehensive portrait of lone parenthood at the beginning of the XXI century from a life course perspective. The contributions included in this volume examine the dynamics of lone parenthood in the life course and explore the trajectories of lone parents in terms of income, poverty, labour, market behaviour, wellbeing, and health. Throughout, comparative analyses of data from countries as France, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, Hungary, and Australia help portray how lone parenthood varies between regions, cultures, generations, and institutional settings. The findings show that one-parent households are inhabited by a rather heterogeneous world of mothers and fathers facing different challenges.
Readers will not only discover the demographics and diversity of lone parents, but also the variety of social representations and discourses about the changing phenomenon of lone parenthood. The book provides a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies on lone parenthood. Using large scale and longitudinal panel and register data, the reader will gain insight in complex processes across time. More qualitative case studies on the other hand discuss the definition of lone parenthood, the public debate around it, and the social and subjective representations of lone parents themselves.
This book aims at sociologists, demographers, psychologists, political scientists, family therapists, and policy makers who want to gain new insights into one of the most striking changes in family forms over the last 50 years.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-63295-7
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-63295-7

Burnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers

TitreBurnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBoerner, K, Gleason, H, Jopp, D
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Volume54
Nombre3
Pagination317–325
Date Published09/2017
ISSN08853924
Mots-clésbereavement, Burnout dimensions, caregiving, direct care staff, employment outcome, grief, homecare workers, nursing assistants, patient death
Résumé

Context: Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention.
Objectives: To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions.
Methods: Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment).
Results: Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion.
Conclusion: Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout.

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0885392417303548
DOI10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.06.006
Short TitleBurnout After Patient Death

A multilevel analysis of professional conflicts in health care teams: Insight for future training

TitreA multilevel analysis of professional conflicts in health care teams: Insight for future training
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBochatay, N, Bajwa, N, Cullati, S, Muller-Juge, V, Blondon, K, Perron, NJunod, Maître, F, Chopard, P, Vu, NViet, Kim, S, Savoldelli, G, Hudelson, P, Nendaz, M
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume92
Nombre11
Pagination84–92
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1040-2446
Résumé

PURPOSE: Without a proper understanding of conflict between health care professionals, designing effective conflict management training programs for trainees that reflect the complexity of the clinical working environment is difficult. To better inform the development of conflict management training, this study sought to explore health care professionals' experiences of conflicts and their characteristics. METHOD: Between 2014 and early 2016, 82 semistructured interviews were conducted with health care professionals directly involved in first-line patient care in four departments of the University Hospitals of Geneva. These professionals included residents, fellows, certified nursing assistants, nurses, and nurse supervisors. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and conventional content analysis was used to derive conflict characteristics. RESULTS: Six conflict sources were identified. Among these sources, disagreements on patient care tended to be the primary trigger of conflict, whereas sources related to communication contributed to conflict escalation without directly triggering conflict. A framework of workplace conflict that integrates its multidimensional and cyclical nature was subsequently developed. This framework suggests that conflict consequences and responses are interrelated, and might generate further tensions that could affect health care professionals, teams, and organizations, as well as patient care. Findings also indicated that supervisors' responses to contentious situations often failed to meet health care professionals' expectations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding conflicts between health care professionals involves several interrelated dimensions, such as sources, consequences, and responses to conflict. There is a need to strengthen health care professionals' ability to identify and respond to conflict and to further develop conflict management programs for clinical supervisors.

URLhttp://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001888-201711001-00014
DOI10.1097/ACM.0000000000001912

Analysing the role of social visits on migrants’ social capital: A personal network approach

TitreAnalysing the role of social visits on migrants’ social capital: A personal network approach
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursViry, G, Ganjour, O, Gauthier, J-A, Ravalet, E, Widmer, E
JournalSocial Inclusion
Volume5
Ticket4
Pagination209–220
Date Published12/2017
ISSN2183-2803
Mots-clésdistance, migration, network geography, personal networks, sequence analysis, social capital, social network analysis, social support, social visits, travel
Résumé

There are concerns that migrants may be embedded in far-flung networks with support being less collective. The spatial dispersion of their relatives and friends would result in fragmented networks with lower solidarity and lower mutual trust than densely connected networks based on geographical proximity. This may be particularly true for migrants who rarely meet their relatives and friends face-to-face. Yet, it is unclear what role, if any, distant visits play in migrants’ social capital. This article examines these issues using representative data from Switzerland and a combination of network and sequence analysis. Results show that migrants have more spatially dispersed networks, which, in turn, are associated with higher number of emotional support ties compared to respondents with spatially close networks, yet they are characterised by low cohesion and low trust. Distant visits only partly moderate the influence of spatial dispersion on social capital. People who frequently visit or host their far-flung relatives and friends have more transitive networks and fewer supportive ties than those who see them less often, but they do not have higher trust in them. Overall, distant visits have relatively little impact on social capital, suggesting a network effect that goes beyond dyadic relationships.

URLhttps://www.cogitatiopress.com/socialinclusion/article/view/1164
DOI10.17645/si.v5i4.1164

Migrant status and lone motherhood-Risk factors or female labour force participation in Switzerland

TitreMigrant status and lone motherhood-Risk factors or female labour force participation in Switzerland
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBernardi, L, Struffolino, E, Milewski, N
ÉditeurBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Book TitleLone parenthood in the life course
Pagination141–163
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland

Introduction of an organised programme and social inequalities in mammography screening: A 22-year population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland

TitreIntroduction of an organised programme and social inequalities in mammography screening: A 22-year population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSandoval, JLuis, Theler, J-M, Cullati, S, Bouchardy, C, Manor, O, Gaspoz, J-M, Guessous, I
JournalPreventive Medicine
Volume103
Pagination49–55
ISSN00917435
Mots-clésBreast neoplasms, Female, Mammography, Socioeconomic factors
Résumé

In developed countries, breast cancer mortality has decreased during the last decades due to, at least partially, the advent of mammography screening. Organised programmes aim, among other objectives, to increase participation and decrease social inequalities in screening access. We aimed to characterise the evolution of socioeconomic disparities in mammography screening before and after the implementation of an organised programme in Geneva, Switzerland. We included 5345 women, aged 50-74years, without past history of breast cancer who participated in the cross-sectional Bus Santé study, between 1992 and 2014. Outcome measures were: 1) never had a mammography (1992-2014) and 2) never had a mammography or not screened in the two years before being surveyed (subgroup analysis, 2007-2014). Educational attainment was divided in three groups (primary, secondary and tertiary) and period in two (before/after introduction of a screening programme in 1999). We calculated measures of relative and absolute change, including the relative (RII) and slope (SII) indices of social inequality adjusted for age and nationality. We compared the prevalence of screening before and after screening programme implementation using Poisson models. The proportion of unscreened women decreased during the study period from 30.5% to 3.6%. Lower educated women were more frequently unscreened (RII=2.39, p

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091743517302736
DOI10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.025

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