Educational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland

TitreEducational sorting in mixed marriages in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume43
Nombre3
ISSN2297-8348
Mots-cléseducational hypogamy, intermarriage, status-caste exchange
Résumé

According to status-caste exchange theory, intermarriages involve transactions in which higher educated immigrants trade status for the ethnic advantage of the less-educated native partners. Looking at 2 836 currently married Swiss immigrants, we find that the highly skilled “exchange” their status only when pairing with a medium-educated native. Results also show that younger cohorts of immigrants are more likely to choose hypogamy when marrying a same-origin immigrant than when partnering a native.

URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/sjs.2017.43.issue-3/sjs-2017-0026/sjs-2017-0026.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2017-0026

Delay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective

TitreDelay of Gratification, Delay Discounting and their Associations with Age, Episodic Future Thinking, and Future Time Perspective
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGöllner, LM, Ballhausen, N, Kliegel, M, Forstmeier, S
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume8
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésdelay discounting, delay of gratification, episodic future thinking, future time perspective, life span, self-regulation
Résumé

While the delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test”, studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age, using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs (future time perspective, FTP, and episodic future thinking, EFT) as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study (N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was lowest (i.e., self-control (SC) was highest) in young/middle adults, but was highest (i.e., SC lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02304

The Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents

TitreThe Mediating Impact of Parental Support on the Relationship Between Personality and Career Indecision in Adolescents
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursMarcionetti, J, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Volume25
Nombre4
Pagination601–615
ISSN1069-0727
Résumé

In the Swiss education system, approximately 55% of adolescents are required to make their first vocational choice at the end of mandatory school. This can induce transitory or long-lasting career indecision that is recognized as being influenced by personal and contextual factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships between career decision-making difficulties and the five-factor model of personality traits, parental support, and self-esteem in 448 Grade 9 Swiss adolescents. We then proceeded to test if these relationships vary according to the adolescent’s educational choice (i.e., whether they attend high school or if they choose an apprenticeship or vocational training). Results have highlighted the importance of neuroticism, conscientiousness, and parental support to predict career decision-making difficulties. Moreover, parental support mediated the relationships between extraversion and agreeableness (fully) and between conscientiousness (partially) and career decision-making difficulties. Finally, the educational choice had no impact on the overall pattern of relationships. Implications for career counselor practices were further discussed.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716652890
DOI10.1177/1069072716652890

How Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation

TitreHow Would Pyrrho have been Socially Valued? Social Desirability and Social Utility of Conflict Regulation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSommet, N, Quiamzade, A, Butera, F
JournalInternational Review of Social Psychology
Volume30
Nombre1
ISSN2397-8570
Mots-clésConflict regulation, Judge paradigm, Social desirability, Social utility, Socio-cognitive conflict
Résumé

Mugny and his colleagues have shown that conflict is sometimes detrimental for learning, but other times beneficial, depending on how it is regulated. Yet, it is assumed that laypeople perceive conflict as uniformly negative. We argue that the valence of these lay perceptions depends on the mode of conflict regulation. Epistemic and relational protective conflict regulation behaviors (integrative and submissive response, respectively) can be described as more focused on the other than relational competitive conflict regulation (self-confirmatory response); thus, they should be perceived as more socially desirable. Moreover, epistemic and competitive regulations can be described as more focused on the self than protective regulation; thus, they should be perceived as more socially useful. First-year psychology students (N = 119) participants evaluated three bogus respondents allegedly regulating conflict in an epistemic, competitive, or protective manner. Results supported both hypotheses, suggesting that conflict is not to be avoided per se and can be positively valued as a function of its regulation.

URLhttp://www.rips-irsp.com/article/10.5334/irsp.88/
DOI10.5334/irsp.88

Coefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart

TitreCoefficient-wise tree-based varying coefficient regression with vcrpart
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBuergin, RArthur, Ritschard, G
JournalJournal of Statistical Software
Volume80
Ticket6
Pagination1–33
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésCART, generalized linear models, R package, regression trees, statistical learning, varying coefficient models
Résumé

The tree-based TVCM algorithm and its implementation in the R package vcrpart are introduced for generalized linear models. The purpose of TVCM is to learn whether and how the coefficients of a regression model vary by moderating variables. A separate partition is built for each potentially varying coefficient, allowing the user to specify coefficient-specific sets of potential moderators, and allowing the algorithm to select moderators individually by coefficient. In addition to describing the algorithm, the TVCM is evaluated using a benchmark comparison and a simulation study and the R commands are demonstrated by means of empirical applications.

URLhttps://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v080i06
DOI10.18637/jss.v080.i06

Parental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?

TitreParental leave within the broader employment trajectory: What can we learn from administrative records?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalEquality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal
Volume36
Ticket7
Pagination607–627
Date Published08/2017
Mots-clésEmployment trajectory, parental leave, sequence analysis, Work-family reconciliation
Résumé

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of parental leave use and long-term employment trajectories of parents in Luxembourg based on anonymous administrative records. This is the first systematic analysis of parental leave take-up rates and return rates for Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use highly detailed administrative data to calculate take-up and return rates for parental leave for both men and women working in Luxembourg. To gain deeper insights into the employment trajectories of parents, the authors deploy the visualisation tools of the TraMineR package, which allow the authors to trace developments over time. Findings: The authors estimate take-up rates for parental leave at 72 per cent for mothers and 13 per cent for fathers. The return rates for mothers are 88.4, 99.4 and 70.8 per cent depending on whether they took full-time, part-time or no parental leave. In contrast, over 95 per cent of fathers remain employed following parental leave. The trajectory analysis reveals that the event of birth is a clear turning point for the majority of the female trajectories, but not for the male ones. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature in at least several ways. First, this is the first available paper presenting the situation in Luxembourg using a large and reliable data set. Second, by including fathers in the analysis, the authors contribute to the available knowledge of male use of parental leave, which has been the subject of continued policy efforts in the past decades. Finally, the authors show how parental leave can be analysed using sequence analysis tools and how this method offers additional, holistic insights into work-family patterns over time.

URLhttps://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
DOI10.1108/EDI-05-2017-0109
Short TitleParental leave within the broader employment trajectory

Precision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis

TitrePrecision, reliability, and effect size of slope variance in latent growth curve models: Implications for statistical power analysis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBrandmaier, AM, von Oertzen, T, Ghisletta, P, Lindenberger, U, Hertzog, C
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume9
Date Published02/2018
Résumé

Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) have become a standard technique to model change over time. Prediction and explanation of inter-individual differences in change are major goals in lifespan research. The major determinants of statistical power to detect individual differences in change are the magnitude of true inter-individual differences in linear change (LGCM slope variance), design precision, alpha level, and sample size. Here, we show that design precision can be expressed as the inverse of effective error. Effective error is determined by instrument reliability and the temporal arrangement of measurement occasions. However, it also depends on another central LGCM component, the variance of the latent intercept and its covariance with the latent slope. We derive a new reliability index for LGCM slope variance—effective curve reliability (ECR)—by scaling slope variance against effective error. ECR is interpretable as a standardized effect size index. We demonstrate how effective error, ECR, and statistical power for a likelihood ratio test of zero slope variance formally relate to each other and how they function as indices of statistical power. We also provide a computational approach to derive ECR for arbitrary intercept-slope covariance. With practical use cases, we argue for the complementary utility of the proposed indices of a study's sensitivity to detect slope variance when making a priori longitudinal design decisions or communicating study designs.

URLhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00294
Short TitlePrecision, Reliability, and Effect Size

Illness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age

TitreIllness and intelligence are comparatively strong predictors of individual differences in depressive symptoms following middle age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursAichele, S, Rabbitt, P, Ghisletta, P
JournalAging & mental health
Date Published10/2017
ISSN1360-7863 (Print) 1364-6915 (Online)
Mots-clésaging, cognition, depression, fluid intelligence, machine learning
Résumé

Objective: We compared the importance of socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, and multiple cognitive measures for predicting individual differences in depressive symptoms in later adulthood. Method: Data came from 6203 community-dwelling older adults (age 41–93 years at study entry) from the United Kingdom. Predictors (36 in total) were assessed up to four times across a period of approximately 12 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Statistical methods included multiple imputation (for missing data), random forest analysis (a machine learning approach), and multivariate regression. Results: On average, depressive symptoms increased gradually following middle age and appeared to accelerate in later life. Individual differences in depressive symptoms were most strongly associated with differences in combined symptoms of physical illness (positive relation) and fluid intelligence (negative relation). The strength of association between depressive symptoms and fluid intelligence was unaffected by differences in health status within a subsample of chronically depressed individuals. Conclusion: Joint consideration of general health status and fluid intelligence may facilitate prediction of depressive symptoms severity during later life and may also serve to identify sub-populations of community-dwelling elders at risk for chronic depression.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440
DOI10.1080/13607863.2017.1394440

Memory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood

TitreMemory deficits precede increases in depressive symptoms in later adulthood
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAichele, S, Ghisletta, P
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology: Series B
Date Published01/2018
Mots-clésBi-directional, depression, Longitudinal Change, memory
Résumé

Objectives: We examined bidirectional, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in depressive symptoms and memory. Method: Data came from 107,599 community-dwelling adults, aged 49–90 years, who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Depressive symptoms were measured with the EURO-D inventory, and memory was evaluated as delayed recall of a 10-word list. Participants were assessed up to five times at 2-year intervals. Dynamic structural equation models were used to estimate longitudinal and time-ordered (lead-lag) relations between depressive symptoms and memory performance. Results: Depressive symptoms increased and memory scores decreased across the observed age range, with worsening mostly evident after age 62 years. These long-term changes were moderately negatively correlated (r = −.53, p

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbx183/4827964
DOI10.1093/geronb/gbx183

Intraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity

TitreIntraindividual variability in inhibition and prospective memory in healthy older adults: Insights from response regularity and rapidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJoly-Burra, E, Van der Linden, M, Ghisletta, P
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Ticket13
Pagination1–27
Date Publishedmar
Mots-clésamplitude of fluctuations, autoregressive parameter, functional adaptability, functional diversity, Go/NoGo SART task, intraindividual variability, prepotent response inhibition, prospective memory, random process fluctuation
Résumé

Successful prospective memory (PM) performance relies on executive functions, including inhibition. However, PM and inhibition are usually assessed in separate tasks, and analytically the focus is either on group differences or at most on interindividual differences. Conjoint measures of PM and inhibition performance that take into account intraindividual variability (IIV) are thus missing. In the present study, we assessed healthy older adults’ level of performance and IIV in both inhibition and PM using a classical Go/NoGo task. We also created a prospective Go/NoGo version that embeds a PM component into the task. Using dynamic structural equation modeling, we assessed the joint effects of mean level (μ), an indicator of amplitude of fluctuations in IIV (or net IIV; intraindividual standard deviation, iSD), and an indicator of time dependency in IIV (the autoregressive parameter ϕ) in reaction times (RTs) on inhibition and PM performance. Results indicate that higher inhibition failure, but not IIV, predicted PM errors, corroborating the current literature on the involvement of prepotent response inhibition in PM processes. In turn, fastest RT latency (μ) and increased net IIV (iSD) were consistently associated with prepotent response inhibition failure, while coherence in RT pattern (ϕ) was beneficial to inhibition performance when the task was novel. Time-dependent IIV (ϕ) appears to reflect an adaptive exploration of strategies to attain optimal performance, whereas increased net IIV (iSD) may indicate inefficient sustained cognitive processes when performance is high. We discuss trade-off processes between competing tasks.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/13
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010013

Daily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?

TitreDaily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBerchtold, A, Akre, C, Barrense-Dias, Y, Zimmermann, G, Suris, J-C
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Pagination1–5
Mots-clésadolescent, child, evidence-based practice, health outcomes, internet, screen time
Résumé

Background: Since 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today’s connected world. Methods: We used data from the ado@internet.ch survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female). Internet use, health outcomes, substance use, well-being and socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Bi-variate statistical analyses were performed. Results: All outcomes were significantly associated with the time spent on internet, more time being associated with a higher prevalence of adverse consequences. Youth spending on average one more hour on Internet per day than the reference category (1.5–2.5 h) did not differ in terms of adverse health outcomes. Differences began to appear on sleeping problems, tobacco use, alcohol misuse, cannabis use and sport inactivity with youth spending between 3.5 h and 4.5 h per day on internet. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the absence of justification for setting a limit to only 2 h of screen time per day. Significant effects on health seem to appear only beyond 4 h per day and there may be benefits for those who spend less than an hour and a half on internet.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/cky054/4973864
DOI10.1093/eurpub/cky054
Short TitleDaily internet time

Understanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)

TitreUnderstanding trends in family formation trajectories: An application of Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStuder, M, Liefbroer, AC, Mooyaart, JE
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
Volume36
Pagination1-12
Date Published06/2018
ISSN1040-2608
Mots-clésevent history analysis, Family formation, Secularization, sequence analysis, Youth unemployment
Résumé

Over the past 50 years, family formation trajectories have undergone major changes in the events that occur as well as in the timing and order of these events. Whereas previous studies showed when and how these shifts occur, not much research has been conducted to test why these changes have taken place. This paper tests two possible explanations, namely cultural (secularization) and economic (youth unemployment) change using the Fertility and Family survey of the Netherlands conducted in 2008. We also employed a new method, Competing Trajectories Analysis (CTA), which combines features of sequence analysis and event history analysis, to examine the relationship between secularization and youth unemployment and pathways into adulthood. Our results show that the start of family formation is postponed in times of high secularization and youth unemployment, when pathways including early marriage and parenthood become less popular, and cohabiting without having children becomes more popular.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818300285
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2018.02.003

Prospective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults

TitreProspective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursHering, A, Kliegel, M, Rendell, PG, Craik, FIM, Rose, NS
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume24
Pagination1–6
Date Published04/2018
ISSN1355-6177, 1469-7661
Mots-clésaging, delayed intentions, Everyday functioning, Instrumental activities of daily living, Memory for intentions, Old adulthood
Résumé

Objectives: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to execute delayed intentions, has received increasing attention in neuropsychology and gerontology. Most of this research is motivated by the claim that PM is critical for maintaining functional independence; yet, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back up the claims. Thus, the present study tested whether PM predicts functional independence in older adults using validated behavioral performance measures for both PM and functional independence. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy older adults performed a computerized PM paradigm, the Virtual Week task, as well as a timed version of an instrumental activities of daily living (TIADL) task. Furthermore, we assessed vocabulary, processing speed, and self-reported prospective remembering. Results: TIADL scores correlated significantly with performance in the Virtual Week task, vocabulary, and processing speed. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that vocabulary and Virtual Week performance were significant predictors for TIADL. However, self-reported PM scores did not predict everyday functioning. Conclusions: The findings indicate that PM is an important cognitive ability for successful and independent everyday life beyond vocabulary. Moreover, the results show a substantial incremental contribution of intact PM performance for the prediction of everyday functioning by using objective PM measures.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/prospective-memory-is-a-key-predictor-of-functional-independence-in-older-adults/C76245304041305A0D9EE74A2745E71F
DOI10.1017/S1355617718000152

Age and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task

TitreAge and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGhisletta, P, Renaud, O, Fagot, D, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume42
Ticket2
Pagination294–299
Date Published03/2018
ISSN0165-0254
Mots-clésgeneralized additive models, intra-individual variability, lifespan, Simple reaction time
Résumé

While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential moderating sex effects on RT-IIV. We analyzed responses in a simple RT task with 120 trials in children, younger, and older adults. To best capture sex differences we used generalized additive models (GAMs), a semi-parametric regression approach, to fit splines relating nonlinearly age to RT, and capable of testing sex differences therein. This method is more adequate to test sex differences in nonlinear age relations than polynomial regression. Results show that (a) males are faster than females (except in the older adults), and (b) in younger and older adults, males are less variable than females. No sex difference in IIV emerged in children. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex differences in RT variability may be attributable to brain effects of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, whose receptors are present in several brain regions involved in information processing and attention, which are systems involved in the regulation of variability in information processing. Thus, according to this hypothesis, sex differences in RT-IIV should be present after puberty, but not in pre-pubertal children.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0165025417739179
DOI10.1177/0165025417739179

Intra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures

TitreIntra-individual variability from a lifespan perspective: a comparison of latency and accuracy measures
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursFagot, D, Mella, N, Borella, E, Ghisletta, P, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Volume6
Nombre1
Pagination1-18
Date Published03/2018
Mots-clésintra-individual variability, life-span, reaction time, working memory
Résumé

Within-task variability across trials (intra-individual variability (IIV)) has been mainly studied using latency measures but rarely with accuracy measures. The aim of the Geneva Variability Study was to examine IIV in both latency and accuracy measures of cognitive performance across the lifespan, administering the same tasks to children, younger adults, and older adults. Six processing speed tasks (Response Time (RT) tasks, 8 conditions) and two working memory tasks scored in terms of the number of correct responses (Working Memory (WM)—verbal and visuo-spatial, 6 conditions), as well as control tasks, were administered to over 500 individuals distributed across the three age periods. The main questions were whether age differences in IIV would vary throughout the lifespan according (i) to the type of measure used (RTs vs. accuracy); and (ii) to task complexity. The objective of this paper was to present the general experimental design and to provide an essentially descriptive picture of the results. For all experimental tasks, IIV was estimated using intra-individual standard deviation (iSDr), controlling for the individual level (mean) of performance and for potential practice effects. As concerns RTs, and in conformity with a majority of the literature, younger adults were less variable than both children and older adults, and the young children were often the most variable. In contrast, IIV in the WM accuracy scores pointed to different age trends—age effects were either not observed or, when found, they indicated that younger adults were the more variable group. Overall, the findings suggest that IIV provides complementary information to that based on a mean performance, and that the relation of IIV to cognitive development depends on the type of measure used.

URLhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/6/1/16
DOI10.3390/jintelligence6010016
Short TitleIntra-Individual Variability from a Lifespan Perspective

‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland

Titre‘And we are still here’: Life courses and life conditions of Italian, Spanish and Portuguese retirees in Switzerland
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBolzman, C, Vagni, G
ÉditeurVlase, I, Voicu, B
Book TitleGender, Family, and Adaptation of Migrants in Europe - A Life Course Perspective
Pagination75–97
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
Résumé

This book discusses the challenges faced by international migrants and returnees after years of experience in other countries....

Notes

status: Advance online publication

URLwww.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319766560

Assessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity

TitreAssessing adherence to multiple medications and in daily life among patients with multimorbidity
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursInauen, J, Bierbauer, W, Lüscher, J, König, C, Tobias, R, Ihle, A, Zimmerli, L, Holzer, B, Battegay, E, Siebenhüner, K, Kliegel, M, Scholz, U
JournalPsychology & Health
Volume32
Ticket10
Pagination1233–1248
Date Published10/2017
ISSN0887-0446
Mots-cléselectronic medication adherence, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, multiple medications, polypharmacy, self-report
Résumé

Objective: Chronic conditions often require multiple medication intake. However, past research has focused on assessing overall adherence or adherence to a single index medication only. This study explored adherence measures for multiple medication intake, and in daily life, among patients with multiple chronic conditions (i.e. multimorbidity). Design: Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity and multiple-medication regimens completed three monthly panel questionnaires. A randomly assigned subsample additionally completed a 30-day daily diary. Main outcome measure: The Non-Adherence Report; a brief self-report measure of adherence to each prescribed medication (NAR-M), and in daily life. We further assessed the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), and a subsample of participants were randomised to electronic adherence monitoring. Results: The NAR-M indicated M = 94.7% adherence at Time 1 (SD = 9.3%). The NAR-M was significantly correlated with the MARS (rt1 = .52, rt2 = .57, and rt3 = .65; p

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
DOI10.1080/08870446.2016.1275632
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28043163

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve

TitreHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursIhle, A, Gouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Freitas, DL, Jurema, J, Tinôco, MA, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume44
Pagination84–91
Date Published07/2017
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Mots-cléscognitive functioning, Cognitive leisure activity, Cognitive level of job, cognitive reserve, education, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, life course, older adults
Résumé

Aims: The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Results: A critically low HDL-C level (

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/477846
DOI10.1159/000477846
Short TitleHigh-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults
Identifiant (ID) PubMed28743108

The interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory

TitreThe interplay of intention maintenance and cue monitoring in younger and older adults’ prospective memory
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBallhausen, N, Schnitzspahn, K, Horn, SS, Kliegel, M
JournalMemory & Cognition
Volume45
Nombre7
Pagination1113–1125
Date Published06/2017
ISSN0090-502X, 1532-5946
Mots-clésaging, Focality, Maintenance, Monitoring, prospective memory
Résumé

The retention phase of a prospective memory (PM) task poses different challenges, including demands to store or maintain an intended action and to realize the right moment for action execution. The interplay of these processes in younger and older adults has not been explored so far. In this study, the authors examined the impact of maintenance load and task focality on PM in 84 younger and in 83 older adults. Results indicated that PM performance and ongoing task response times were strongly affected by maintenance load and age. However, a focality effect only emerged when maintenance load was low but not when attentional resources were deployed for maintaining a more demanding intention. These findings suggest that maintenance and monitoring requirements compete for similar attentional resources. Furthermore, maintenance load may affect postretrieval processes through its impact on working-memory resources, which can restrain the typical advantage of focal over nonfocal PM tasks.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5
DOI10.3758/s13421-017-0720-5

The effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial

TitreThe effect of the ProBalance Programme on health-related quality of life of community-dwelling older adults: a randomised controlled trial
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGouveia, BR, Gouveia, ÉR, Ihle, A, Jardim, HG, Martins, MM, Freitas, DL, Kliegel, M
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume74
Pagination26–31
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésaging, Balance training, Gerontology, Health Promotion, quality of life, rehabilitation
Résumé

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important health outcome in older adults. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the ProBalance rehabilitation programme on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults with balance impairments and to investigate whether effects differ between age groups and/or HRQoL components. Methods A single-blind, randomised controlled trial included community-dwelling older adults, aged 65–85, with balance impairments. Participants (n=52) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A rehabilitation programme included gait, balance, functional training, strengthening, flexibility, and 3D training. A group-based intervention was administered over a period of 12 weeks (90-min sessions, 2days per week). A wait-list control group was instructed to maintain their usual activities during the same period. Participants’ HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The time points for assessment were at zero (pre-test), 12 (post-test), and 24 weeks (follow up). Results A trend for higher HRQoL in the IG compared to the CG and a significant interaction of group with time were found, with significantly higher increases in HRQoL from the pre-test to the post-test (and to follow-up) in the IG, compared to the CG. Results were independent of age group (young-old vs. old-old) and HRQoL component (physical vs. mental). Conclusions Present results suggest that the ProBalance programme had a beneficial effect on HRQoL of community-dwelling older adults, which held across young and old adults and not only comprised physical but also mental HRQoL. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12612000301864.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494317302777
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2017.08.012

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