Valuation of life among old and very old adults: Comparison between Germany and Japan

TitreValuation of life among old and very old adults: Comparison between Germany and Japan
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursNakagawa, T, Jopp, D, Gondo, Y, Lehrfeld, J, Rott, C, Oswald, F
JournalInnovation in Aging
Volume2
Nombre2
Mots-clésculture, Old-old, quality of life, well-being, Young-old
Résumé

Background and Objectives: Valuation of life (VOL) represents a construct capturing individuals’ active attachment to
their life. The majority of studies on VOL were conducted in North America and Europe where personal autonomy and
independence are highly valued, leaving open the question about the relevance of this construct in interdependence-oriented
cultures. Using a framework of cross-cultural and life-span theories, the present study compared levels and predictors of
VOL between the young-old and old-old individuals from Germany and Japan. Research Design and Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven Germans and 248 Japanese, matched by age, gender, education, and IADL, answered a 5-item VOL scale and shared information on sociodemographic, social, and health resources. Results: Germans’ VOL levels were higher than in Japanese participants. Both culture- and age-moderated predictions of VOL: education was significant only in the young-old Japanese, and close social partners mattered in the old-old, not in the young-old. Health determined VOL irrespective of culture and age. Discussion and Implications: The findings suggest that cultural values and aging processes should be considered to
better understand how individuals value their life and to help older adults to feel that his/her life is meaningful and
worth living.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/innovateage/article/2/2/igy020/5051923
DOI10.1093/geroni/igy020
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Vulnérabilités, équité et santé

TitreVulnérabilités, équité et santé
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorBodenmann, P, Jackson, Y, Wolff, H
PublisherRMS éditions
Place PublishedChêne-Bourg, Switzerland
Résumé

Que les inégalités des conditions sociales engendrent des inégalités en santé est une réalité dont l’injustice doit être combattue, par tous y compris par les professionnels de santé et du domaine social. Dans tous les pays et particulièrement dans les pays « développés », il existe une corrélation entre la position socio-économique et l’état de santé, que les crises financières et politiques ainsi que les flux migratoires accentuent encore. Cet ouvrage, fruit de la collaboration d’institutions médicales et académiques, rappelle l’importance de maintenir ou de rétablir activement l’équité dans les soins et de contextualiser la prise en charge d’un patient avec professionnalisme mais aussi avec humanisme et éthique. Il cherche à sensibiliser aux besoins spécifiques et souvent complexes des populations vulnérables, moins aptes à faire valoir leurs droits. Car les inégalités sont liées non seulement à la déprivation matérielle, mais aussi aux facteurs psychosociaux et à leurs effets biologiques, affectant les personnes à tous les stades de leur vie, aussi bien physiquement que mentalement. Ces déterminants sociaux sont les plus évidents auprès des groupes exclus de la population générale – familles exilées, prisonniers, travailleurs du sexe, sans-abris et bien d’autres. Ce livre a pour objectif de présenter les différents concepts de la vulnérabilité en lien avec les inégalités de santé dans un cadre ancré dans la pratique médicale et de santé publique. Il offre des conseils pratiques pour la prise en charge des personnes et patients en situation de vulnérabilité et de précarité, tant sur le plan individuel que collectif, basés sur des évidences scientifiques.

Adult children’s relationship to parent influences their views on aging and attitude toward own aging

TitreAdult children’s relationship to parent influences their views on aging and attitude toward own aging
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJung, S, Jopp, D
JournalThe International Journal of Aging and Human Development
ISSN0091-4150
Mots-clésattitude toward own aging, intergenerational relationships, parent–adult children relationships, subjective aging, views on aging
Résumé

The goal of this study was to examine how the quality of relationship between parent and adult children influences adult children’s views on aging and attitude toward their own aging and whether the effects of relationship qualities depend on parents’ health and adult children’s perceptions of how well their parents were aging. The sample included 217 adult children aged 18 to 73. Findings revealed that different parent–child relationship quality dimensions (i.e., support, conflict, depth, ambivalence) differentially influenced adult children’s view on aging (positive and negative) and attitude toward own aging, and some of these effects depended on levels of parental health and the way adult children view how successfully their parents were aging. The quality of the relationship to one’s parents has an important role in shaping adults’ views on aging and experience of their own aging, highlighting the importance of incorporating the role of family context to further enhance our understanding of how individuals develop perceptions of aging.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0091415018784703
DOI10.1177/0091415018784703
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Centenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans: Is their social network on the same page?

TitreCentenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans: Is their social network on the same page?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBoerner, K, Kim, K, Kim, Y, Rott, C, Jopp, D
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume66
Nombre7
Pagination1311–1317
ISSN1532-5415
Mots-cléscaregivers, centenarian, death, end of life, very old adults
Résumé

Objectives: To explore how centenarians think about and plan for the end of life (EOL) and to what extent their primary contacts (proxy informants) are aware of these thoughts. Design: Population-based study with semistructured in-person interviews. Setting: Defined geographical region approximately 60 km around Heidelberg, Germany. Participants: Subsample drawn from the larger study of centenarians (N = 78) with data on centenarians' EOL thoughts from the centenarian and the proxy informant. Measurements: Centenarians reported on their thoughts about the EOL, perception of the EOL as threatening, longing for death, engagement in any EOL planning, and type of EOL plan (will, living will, healthcare surrogate) in place. Proxy respondents answered the same set of questions based on what they thought the centenarians' perspective was. Results: In nearly half of cases, proxies misjudged whether the centenarian thought about EOL. Although only few centenarians perceived the EOL as threatening, and approximately one-quarter reported longing for death, proxies overestimated centenarians' reports on the former and underestimated the latter. Proxies reported more centenarian EOL planning than centenarians themselves. Conclusion: Even though enrolled proxies were mostly persons very close to the centenarian, many of them did not seem to be well informed about the centenarians' thoughts and plans regarding the EOL, suggesting a lack of communication between centenarians and social network members in this respect. Healthcare professionals should be aware that, even for very old adults approaching the end of their lives, discussions about EOL and EOL planning may need to be actively encouraged and supported.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jgs.15398
DOI10.1111/jgs.15398
Short TitleCentenarians' end-of-life thoughts and plans

Depressive symptoms in the oldest-old: The role of sensory impairments

TitreDepressive symptoms in the oldest-old: The role of sensory impairments
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursCimarolli, VR, Jopp, DS, Boerner, K, Minahan, J
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume78
Pagination249–254
ISSN0167-4943
Mots-clésCentenarians, depressive symptoms, Hearing loss, Oldest-old, Sensory impairment, Visual impairment
Résumé

Background While a fair amount of research has investigated the impact of sensory impairments on the mental health of young older adults (65–79 years of age), only a few studies have focused on the associations of sensory impairments with mental health outcomes in the oldest-old (80 years and older). To close this gap, this study examined the separate and combined effects of self-reported vision and hearing impairment for depressive symptoms in a sample of oldest-old individuals, controlling for other mental health risks (e.g., functional disability, health interference, and loneliness). Methods Centenarians and near-centenarians (N = 119; average age = 99) were recruited from the community and geriatric healthcare organizations. In-person interviews were conducted at participants’ place of residence. Results Vision impairment and its interaction with hearing impairment as well as functional disability, health interference with desired activities, and loneliness were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression analyses. Hearing impairment alone was not associated with depressive symptoms, but follow-up analyses clarifying the interaction effect showed that individuals with poor vision had the highest levels of depressive symptoms, if they had a concurrent hearing impairment. Thus, a concurrent presence of poor vision and poor hearing resulted in an increased vulnerability for depressive symptoms. Conclusions Given that a majority of oldest-old has sensory impairments which can result in mental health issues, it is important to facilitate this population’s access to vision and audiological treatment and rehabilitation.

URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167494318301420
DOI10.1016/j.archger.2018.07.009
Short TitleDepressive symptoms in the oldest-old

Validation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming

TitreValidation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJopp, D, Dupuis, M, Somer, E, Hagani, N, Herscu, O
JournalPsychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice
ISSN2326-5531(Electronic),2326-5523(Print)
Mots-clésDaydreaming, Factor Analysis, Factor Structure, Fantasies (Thought Disturbances), Foreign Language Translation, Mental Disorders, Pathology, Test Construction, Test Reliability, Test Validity
Résumé

Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) is a newly described mental disorder characterized by extensive mental fantasy activity featuring addiction-like longing for fantasizing, accompanying repetitive movement, and feeling hindered in everyday life. This study describes the first validation of a non-English version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS) and provides additional evidence for MD as a clinical phenomenon. The Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale–Hebrew version (MDS-H) is an adaptation of the 14-item English MDS (Somer, Lehrfeld, Bigelsen, & Jopp, 2016), a self-report questionnaire developed on the basis of qualitative information provided by self-identified maladaptive daydreamers (MDers). The MDS-H was administered to 280 individuals aged 13 to 73 years, including 45 self-identified MDers. Findings confirmed the expected 3-factorial structure, scalar invariance in comparison to the English MDS validation sample, and good psychometric properties. MDS-H scores were associated with dissociation, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity. Given high sensitivity and specificity separating MDers and non-MDers, the MDS-H represents a useful tool to assess MD among Hebrew speakers, suggesting the relevance of MD in a non-English speaking culture, and highlighting the potential value of the MDS for world-wide investigation of this condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

DOI10.1037/cns0000162
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Short TitleValidation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H)

Adaptation to loss and major life change

TitreAdaptation to loss and major life change
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJopp, D
Book TitleThe wiley blackwell Encyclopedia of adulthood and aging
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Place PublishedOxford, UK

The intricacies of space and inclusiveness in family and personal networks

TitreThe intricacies of space and inclusiveness in family and personal networks
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursWidmer, E, Viry, G, Ganjour, O
ÉditeurKapella, O, Schneider, N, Rost, H
Book TitleFamilie – Bildung – Migration. Familienforschung im Spannungsfeld zwischen Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis
Series TitleTagungsband zum 5. Europäischen Fachkongress Familienforschung
PublisherVerlag Barbara Budrich
Place PublishedLeverkusen, Deutschland
Résumé

The impact of physical distance and migration on family and intimate ties has long been of interest to family and intimate relationships scholars. Some research stresses that the increasing geographical dispersion of people in globalization undermines intimate bonds and commitments, while other research emphasises that family and intimate relationships are particularly resilient to distance (Holdsworth, 2013). In particular, family migration research has widely shown that support, intimacy and affection can persist with relatives living far apart (e.g. Baldassar & Merla, 2013; Parreñas, 2005). This chapter stresses that actors not only adjust their family and intimate relationships in response to spatial constraints, but set the boundaries of their families and core personal networks in various ways, with consequences for their spatiality. In other words, we sustain that individuals have agency in constructing and reconstructing their family environment, and in so doing shape the geography of their families and core personal networks. In this perspective, the central issue is not so much the impact of physical distance on personal relationships, as we have done elsewhere (Viry et al, 2017). It is rather to better understand the various ways in which individual actors reconfigure their family and intimate relationships in globalization, which entail important consequences for the spatiality of their families and personal networks.

Ambivalence in later-life family networks: Beyond intergenerational dyads

TitreAmbivalence in later-life family networks: Beyond intergenerational dyads
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGirardin, M, Widmer, E, Connidis, IArnet, Castrén, A-M, Gouveia, R, Masotti, B
JournalJournal of Marriage and Family
Volume80
Nombre3
Pagination768–784
ISSN1741-3737
Mots-clésambivalence, conflict, Emotional support, family networks, inequalities, older adults
Résumé

In later life, changing conditions related to health, partnership, and economic status may trigger not only support but also conflict and ambivalence, with the consequent renegotiation of family ties. The aim of this study is to investigate both conflict and emotional support in the family networks of older adults, taking the research beyond the level of intergenerational dyads. We used a subsample of 563 elders (aged 65 years and older) from the Swiss Vivre/Leben/Vivere survey. Multiple correspondence analysis and in-depth case studies were used to identify the key social conditions that relate to the prevalence of conflicted and supportive dyads in family networks. Findings showed that the balance of conflict and emotional support in older adults' family networks varied according to the composition of their family network as well as their age, health, income, and gender.

URLhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12469
DOI10.1111/jomf.12469

Social dynamics in Swiss society: empirical studies based on the Swiss household panel

TitreSocial dynamics in Swiss society: empirical studies based on the Swiss household panel
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTillmann, R, Voorpostel, M, Farago, P
Volume9
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Place PublishedNew York, NY
ISBN Number978-3-319-89556-7
Résumé

Using longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel to zoom in on continuity and change in the life course, this open access book describes how the lives of the Swiss population have changed in terms of health, family circumstances, work, political participation, and migration over the last sixteen years. What are the different trajectories in terms of mobility, health, wealth, and family constellations? What are the drivers behind all these changes over time and in the life course? And what are the implications for inequality in society and for social policy? The Swiss Household Panel is a unique ongoing longitudinal survey that has followed a large sample of Swiss households since 1999. The data provide the rare opportunity to go beyond a snapshot of contemporary Swiss society and give insight into the processes in people’s lives and in society that lie behind recent developments.

URLhttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319895567
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-89557-4

Health disparities on the periphery of Ouagadougou

TitreHealth disparities on the periphery of Ouagadougou
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, ABassiahi, Lankoandé, B, Millogo, RModeste
ÉditeurFarinas, DRamiro, Oris, M
Book TitleNew Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition
Series TitleInternational Studies in Population
Pagination217–241
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-43001-0 978-3-319-43002-7
Résumé

Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, is currently experiencing rapid population growth, mainly concentrated in the outskirts of the city. Since 2008, the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Ouaga HDSS) has followed 80,000 people living in five neighbourhoods on the periphery of the city, half of them living in poor, informal settlements. This urban population faces a complex burden of disease: children under five die mainly from infectious diseases, while the main causes of deaths among adults aged 15–59 are AIDS, cardiovascular diseases and accidents. In this analysis, we explore whether poverty is associated with greater mortality among small children and among adults and we examine how the risk factors associated with the main causes of death in these two age groups vary by socio-economic status. We find that children who are born to uneducated and poor parents are twice as likely to die as their counterparts likely because they have worse access to both preventive and curative health care. Young children living in informal areas are also twice as likely to die compared to others because, everything else being equal, they are more often ill, more often malnourished, and less likely to receive medical care; these outcomes can be related to the unsanitary environment. In contrast, adult mortality is higher in formal neighbourhoods. Since adult health behaviours are similar regardless of neighbourhood (everything else being constant), this excess mortality seems attributable to the relatively higher wealth of households in formal neighbourhoods: affluent adults are more often overweight and more likely to be HIV positive. Better educated adults have a lower risk of dying than others because, despite their higher rates of accidents and HIV infection, they are more likely to seek medical care.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_12
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_12

Vulnerability in Health Trajectories: Life Course Perspectives

TitreVulnerability in Health Trajectories: Life Course Perspectives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursCullati, S, Burton-Jeangros, C, Abel, T
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume44
Nombre2
Pagination203–215
URLhttps://content.sciendo.com/abstract/journals/sjs/44/2/article-p203.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2018-0009

Mixed marriages in Switzerland: A test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis

TitreMixed marriages in Switzerland: A test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPotarca, G, Bernardi, L
JournalDemographic Research
Volume38
Pagination1457–1494
ISSN1435-9871
Résumé

Background: Switzerland hosts one of the largest and most diversified migrant populations in Europe, while currently reinforcing restrictive immigration policies. Knowledge on Swiss immigrant-native marriages, as ultimate signposts of integration, is limited. Objective: We explore the role of origin group and birth cohort in the emergence and dissolution of mixed marriages in Switzerland among both natives and immigrants. Methods: Based on a sample of 12,827 respondents from the 2013 Swiss Family and Generations
Survey, we fit competing-risks models for entry into first marriage, and Cox proportional hazards models for entry into (first) divorce. Results: We find evidence of a segmented marriage market, with migrants from neighbouring Western European countries having higher chances of getting and staying married to a
Swiss native. As opposed to natives, migrants from younger cohorts are progressively less likely to intermarry.
Conclusions: In line with segmented assimilation claims, results suggest differences in integration pathways between immigrant groups. Findings also point to the reactive ethnicity of marginalized groups (e.g., Turks and ex-Yugoslavs) in response to an increasingly hostile immigration climate. Decreasing (inter)marriage with natives among young immigrants reflects shifting marriage market conditions over the last decades.

URLhttps://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol38/48/
DOI10.4054/DemRes.2018.38.48
Short TitleMixed marriages in Switzerland

Recognition and Capability: A New Way to Understand How Children Can Achieve Their Rights?

TitreRecognition and Capability: A New Way to Understand How Children Can Achieve Their Rights?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursThomas, N, Stoecklin, D
ÉditeurBaraldi, C, Cockburn, T
Book TitleTheorising Childhood
Series TitleStudies in Childhood and Youth
Pagination73–94
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-72672-4 978-3-319-72673-1
Résumé

This chapter explores how we can better understand children’s place in society using two theoretical models: recognition theory and the capability approach. It looks at the strengths and weaknesses of each theoretical approach, and how they can be used in combination. While recognition theory focuses on personal identity, the capability approach is primarily concerned with acts that people have the freedom to perform. The link between activities and identities is a central issue, mediated as it is by specific values. The chapter also considers the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as an example of how children’s place in intergenerational relations is constructed. It concludes with a review of current attempts to use the two theories to inform and guide empirical research with children.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-72673-1_4
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-72673-1_4

Children’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice

TitreChildren’s multidimensional agency: Insights into the structuration of choice
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D, Fattore, T
JournalChildhood
Volume25
Nombre1
Pagination47–62
ISSN0907-5682
Mots-clésagency, capability, children, multidimensionality, structure
Résumé

The structuration of agency that lies behind children’s accounts of their well-being in Australia is highlighted. The three forms of agency that are evidenced from the data – agency as competence, agency as self-determination and agency as practical action in everyday contexts – provide insights regarding the characteristics of social structure. The multidimensionality of agency appears in practical achievements, individual choices and everyday action that are all constituted intersubjectively. Theories dealing with the complex links between choice and reflexive monitoring allow better understanding of agency.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0907568217743557
DOI10.1177/0907568217743557
Short TitleChildren’s multidimensional agency

Freely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard

TitreFreely Expressed Views: Methodological Challenges for the Right of the Child to be Heard
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStoecklin, D
JournalChild Indicators Research
ISSN1874-897X, 1874-8988
Mots-cléscapabilities, child, Methodological challenges, participation, Right to be heard, subjective well-being
Résumé

The methodological challenges in the research on children’s subjective understandings of well-being are very close to the ones surrounding the implementation of the right of the child to be heard. Therefore, identification of the factors favouring or impeding children’s freely expressed views on the one hand, and preliminary results of research on children’s subjective well-being on the other hand, reciprocally inform each other. The right to be heard is approached from the perspective of capabilities (Stoecklin & Bonvin 2014) identifying factors that are converting this formal freedom into real freedom. They highlight preliminary results of a qualitative study conducted in Switzerland along the procotol of the Child’s Subjective Well-Being study (Hunner-Kreisel et al. 2016). The inclusion of a participative research tool, the “actor’s system” (Stoecklin 2013), has allowed to concentrate on children’s subjective understandings of their experience. The results are not analysed in terms of statistical representativeness, but rather in terms of « structural » features they allow to highlight. The endeavour is methodological. The analysis shows that language itself can be a conversion factor in the implementation of the right to be heard, and similarly a methodological trap inducing specific translations of children’s voices into the official “vocabulary” of well-being. Research protocols should therefore be adapted to the evolving capacities of children, considering that well-being is not given state but rather a subjective feeling stemming from processual social dynamics in which children play a part, even when they have little voice.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6
DOI10.1007/s12187-018-9527-6

Adult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

TitreAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Bagagnan, CH, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Lankoandé, B, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Haile, F, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Debpuur, C, Oduro, A, Wak, G, Adjei, A, Gyapong, M, Sarpong, D, Kant, S, Misra, P, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Lele, P, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Odhiambo, FO, Phillips-Howard, P, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Oti, S, Crampin, A, Nyirenda, M, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Kahn, K, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Bangha, M, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
Nombre1
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésadults, Africa, Asia, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, non-communicable disease, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: Mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a major global issue, as other categories of mortality have diminished and life expectancy has increased. The World Health Organization's Member States have called for a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, which can only be achieved by substantial reductions in risk factors and improvements in the management of chronic conditions. A high burden of NCD mortality among much older people, who have survived other hazards, is inevitable. The INDEPTH Network collects detailed individual data within defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To describe patterns of adult NCD mortality from INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories, with separate consideration of premature (15–64 years) and older (65+ years) NCD mortality. Design: All adult deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. Results: A total of 80,726 adult (over 15 years) deaths were documented over 7,423,497 person-years of observation. NCDs were attributed as the cause for 35.6% of these deaths. Slightly less than half of adult NCD deaths occurred in the 15–64 age group. Detailed results are presented by age and sex for leading causes of NCD mortality. Per-site rates of NCD mortality were significantly correlated with rates of HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Conclusions: These findings present important evidence on the distribution of NCD mortality across a wide range of African and Asian settings. This comes against a background of global concern about the burden of NCD mortality, especially among adults aged under 70, and provides an important baseline for future work.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.25365
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25365
Short TitleAdult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377326

HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

TitreHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursP. Streatfield, K, Khan, WA, Bhuiya, A, Hanifi, SMA, Alam, N, Millogo, O, Sié, A, Zabré, P, Rossier, C, Soura, AB, Bonfoh, B, Kone, S, Ngoran, EK, Utzinger, J, Abera, SF, Melaku, YA, Weldearegawi, B, Gomez, P, Jasseh, M, Ansah, P, Azongo, D, Kondayire, F, Oduro, A, Amu, A, Gyapong, M, Kwarteng, O, Kant, S, Pandav, CS, Rai, SK, Juvekar, S, Muralidharan, V, Wahab, A, Wilopo, S, Bauni, E, Mochamah, G, Ndila, C, Williams, TN, Khagayi, S, Laserson, KF, Nyaguara, A, Van Eijk, AM, Ezeh, A, Kyobutungi, C, Wamukoya, M, Chihana, M, Crampin, A, Price, A, Delaunay, V, Diallo, A, Douillot, L, Sokhna, C, F. Gómez-Olivé, X, Mee, P, Tollman, SM, Herbst, K, Mossong, J, Chuc, NTK, Arthur, SS, Sankoh, OA, Byass, P
JournalGlobal Health Action
Volume7
ISSN1654-9716
Mots-clésAfrica, Asia, HIV/AIDS, INDEPTH Network, InterVA, mortality, tuberculosis, verbal autopsy
Résumé

Background: As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. Objective: To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Design Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. Results: The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Conclusions: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220131/
DOI10.3402/gha.v7.25370
Short TitleHIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25377330

Are the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

TitreAre the urban poor really worse off? Socieconomic differentials in adult cause specific mortality at the periphery of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, A, Duthé, G, Lankoandé, B, Millogo, R
JournalQuetelet
Volume2
Nombre2
Pagination61–80
ISSN2034-9378
Mots-clésadultes, Afrique au sud du Sahara, migrants, Mortalité, villes
Résumé

Dans les pays les moins développés, tandis que les citadins les plus pauvres sont plus susceptibles de mourir de maladies transmissibles et de blessures, les plus ri­ches pourraient souffrir d’un plus grand fardeau de maladies non transmissibles. Il n’est donc pas évident de savoir si dans les villes africaines les adultes les plus pau­vres sont en moins bonne santé que leurs homologues plus aisés. Dans cet article, nous décrivons les inégalités sociales qui caractérisent la mortalité des adultes (per­sonnes de 15 à 59 ans) à la périphérie de Ouagadougou, capitale du Burkina Faso. En utilisant les données du Système de Surveillance Démographique et Sanitaire de Ouagadougou, de 2009 à 2011, nous vérifions si des facteurs tels que le niveau d’éducation, la pauvreté et la résidence en quartier informel sont liés au risque de décès prématuré chez les adultes. Nous menons cette analyse de la mortalité tou­tes causes confondues, et aussi en considérant trois grandes catégories de causes de décès : les maladies transmissibles, les maladies non transmissibles et les causes externes. En limitant l’analyse aux adultes nés à Ouagadougou, nous avons constaté que le citadin pauvre fait face à une pénalité sanitaire considérable comparative­ment au moins pauvre, ce qui est conforme aux attentes basées sur la littérature existante. Les non-migrants riches font face à des risques plus faibles de décès pré­maturé dû aussi bien aux maladies transmissibles qu’aux maladies non transmissi­bles. Les adultes migrants quant à eux présentent des tendances très différentes qui faussent l’image globale des inégalités de santé dans la ville. Les migrants riches et les migrants vivant dans les quartiers formels courent un plus grand risque de décès de maladies non transmissibles. Ces résultats particuliers sont probablement dus à des effets de sélection liés à la migration, et peut-être aussi à des niveaux plus élevés d’exposition à des maladies non transmissibles par les migrants. Ils ap­pellent à une plus grande attention portée sur les effets de la migration lors d’étu­des sur les différences rurales-urbaines ou les inégalités sociales de santé en Afri­que sub-saharienne.
In the cities of less developed countries, while poorer residents are likely to be at greater risk of dying from communicable diseases and injuries, wealthier residents may suffer from a greater burden of non-communicable diseases. It remains thus unclear whether poorer African adult city dwellers are in worse health than their better-off counterparts. In this paper, we describe the social inequalities that characterize adult mortality (individuals aged 15 to 59) at the periphery of Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Using data from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2009 to 2011, we test whether factors such as levels of education, poverty and informal settlement are related to risks of pre­mature deaths among adults. We conduct this analysis for all-cause mortality, and also considered three main categories of causes of death: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and external causes. Restricting the analysis to adults born in Ouagadougou, we found that the urban poor face a considerable health penalty compared to the less poor, which is consistent with expectation based on existing literature. Wealthier non-migrants face relatively lower risks of premature death, from both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Adult migrants exhibit very different patterns of mortality, which distort the overall picture of health inequalities in the city. Wealthier adult migrants and migrants living in formal settlements face a greater risk of dying from non-communicable diseases. These particular patterns are probably due to selective in and/or out-migration, and maybe to greater levels of exposure to non-communicable diseases by migrants. These results call for more attention to the effects of migration when studying rural-urban and social differentials of health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

URLhttps://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/Quetelet/article/view/2563
DOI10.14428/rqj2014.02.02.03

Non-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system

TitreNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursRossier, C, Soura, ABassiahi, Duthé, G, Findley, S
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume9
Nombre12
ISSN1932-6203
Résumé

The expected growth in NCDs in cities is one of the most important health challenges of the coming decades in Sub-Saharan countries. This paper aims to fill the gap in our understanding of socio-economic differentials in NCD mortality and risk in low and middle income neighborhoods in urban Africa. We use data collected in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. 409 deaths were recorded between 2009–2011 among 20,836 individuals aged 35 years and older; verbal autopsies and the InterVA program were used to determine the probable cause of death. A random survey asked in 2011 1,039 adults aged 35 and over about tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and measured their weight, height, and blood pressure. These data reveal a high level of premature mortality due to NCDs in all neighborhoods: NCD mortality increases substantially by age 50. NCD mortality is greater in formal neighborhoods, while adult communicable disease mortality remains high, especially in informal neighborhoods. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for NCDs in the studied neighborhoods, with over one-fourth of the adults being overweight and over one-fourth having hypertension. Better-off residents are more prone to physical inactivity and excessive weight, while vulnerable populations such as widows/divorced individuals and migrants suffer more from higher blood pressure. Females have a significantly lower risk of being smokers or heavy drinkers, while they are more likely to be physically inactive or overweight, especially when married. Muslim individuals are less likely to be smokers or heavy drinkers, but have a higher blood pressure. Everything else being constant, individuals living in formal neighborhoods are more often overweight. The data presented make clear the pressing need to develop effective programs to reduce NCD risk across all types of neighborhoods in African cities, and suggest several entry points for community-based prevention programs.

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262303/
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0113780
Short TitleNon-communicable disease mortality and risk factors in formal and informal neighborhoods, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Identifiant (ID) PubMed25493649

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