Age and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task

TitreAge and sex differences in intra-individual variability in a simple reaction time task
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursGhisletta, P, Renaud, O, Fagot, D, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume42
Ticket2
Pagination294–299
Date Published03/2018
ISSN0165-0254
Mots-clésgeneralized additive models, intra-individual variability, lifespan, Simple reaction time
Résumé

While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential moderating sex effects on RT-IIV. We analyzed responses in a simple RT task with 120 trials in children, younger, and older adults. To best capture sex differences we used generalized additive models (GAMs), a semi-parametric regression approach, to fit splines relating nonlinearly age to RT, and capable of testing sex differences therein. This method is more adequate to test sex differences in nonlinear age relations than polynomial regression. Results show that (a) males are faster than females (except in the older adults), and (b) in younger and older adults, males are less variable than females. No sex difference in IIV emerged in children. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that sex differences in RT variability may be attributable to brain effects of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, whose receptors are present in several brain regions involved in information processing and attention, which are systems involved in the regulation of variability in information processing. Thus, according to this hypothesis, sex differences in RT-IIV should be present after puberty, but not in pre-pubertal children.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0165025417739179
DOI10.1177/0165025417739179

Vies musiciennes. Portrait des musiciens ordinaires en Suisse romande

TitreVies musiciennes. Portrait des musiciens ordinaires en Suisse romande
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPerrenoud, M, Bataille, P
ÉditeurRiom, L, Perrenoud, M
Book TitleLa musique en Suisse sous le regard des sciences sociales
Nombre35
Pagination101–126
PublisherSociograph
Place PublishedGeneva, Switzerland

Lone Parenthood in the Life Course

TitreLone Parenthood in the Life Course
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Series TitleLife Course Research and Social Policies
Volume8
Number of Pages338
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-3-319-63293-3, 978-3-319-63295-7
Résumé

Lone parenthood is an increasing reality in the 21st century, reinforced by the diffusion of divorce and separation. This volume provides a comprehensive portrait of lone parenthood at the beginning of the XXI century from a life course perspective. The contributions included in this volume examine the dynamics of lone parenthood in the life course and explore the trajectories of lone parents in terms of income, poverty, labour, market behaviour, wellbeing, and health. Throughout, comparative analyses of data from countries as France, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, Hungary, and Australia help portray how lone parenthood varies between regions, cultures, generations, and institutional settings. The findings show that one-parent households are inhabited by a rather heterogeneous world of mothers and fathers facing different challenges.
Readers will not only discover the demographics and diversity of lone parents, but also the variety of social representations and discourses about the changing phenomenon of lone parenthood. The book provides a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies on lone parenthood. Using large scale and longitudinal panel and register data, the reader will gain insight in complex processes across time. More qualitative case studies on the other hand discuss the definition of lone parenthood, the public debate around it, and the social and subjective representations of lone parents themselves.
This book aims at sociologists, demographers, psychologists, political scientists, family therapists, and policy makers who want to gain new insights into one of the most striking changes in family forms over the last 50 years.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-63295-7
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-63295-7

Burnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers

TitreBurnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBoerner, K, Gleason, H, Jopp, D
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Volume54
Nombre3
Pagination317–325
Date Published09/2017
ISSN08853924
Mots-clésbereavement, Burnout dimensions, caregiving, direct care staff, employment outcome, grief, homecare workers, nursing assistants, patient death
Résumé

Context: Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention.
Objectives: To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions.
Methods: Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment).
Results: Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion.
Conclusion: Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout.

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0885392417303548
DOI10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.06.006
Short TitleBurnout After Patient Death

Families and personal networks - An international comparative perspective

TitreFamilies and personal networks - An international comparative perspective
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorWall, K, Widmer, E, Gauthier, J-A, Cesnuityté, V, Gouveia, R
Series TitlePalgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life
Edition1
Number of Pages254
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Place PublishedLondon, United Kingdom
ISBN Number978-1-349-95263-2
Mots-clésaging, Sociology of Family, youth
Résumé

This book critically assesses the main features of the modernization of family life and personal relationships by examining and comparing three European countries with different social and political pathways: Portugal, Switzerland and Lithuania. Drawing on national surveys of family trajectories and social networks, the contributors highlight personal and family relationships through the lens of network and life course perspectives as well as gender and generational perspectives.
Providing innovative, comparative findings on families and personal networks through the use of diverse methodologies, this edited collection will be of interest to scholars, students and policymakers across a range of social science disciplines.

DOI10.1057/978-1-349-95263-2

The Influence of educational expansion on partnership stability: A cohort study of first partnerships in Switzerland

TitreThe Influence of educational expansion on partnership stability: A cohort study of first partnerships in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursKessler, D
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume43
Ticket3
Pagination543-565
Date Published11/2017
ISSN2297-8348
Mots-cléscohabitation, divorce, educational expansion, educational gradient, séparation
Résumé

This study examines the association between educational attainment and separation risks in marital or non-marital first partnerships to query the extent to which educational expansion has affected trends in partnership stability. Because the educational gradient in separation changed from being positive for women (and, to a lesser extent, for men) to being statistically non-significant at the same time as educational expansion took place, the latter can only serve as a minor explanation of the exceptional rise in breakup rates in Switzerland.

URLhttp://www.degruyter.com/view/j/sjs.2017.43.issue-3/sjs-2017-0027/sjs-2017-0027.xml
DOI10.1515/sjs-2017-0027

Public smoking ban and socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence and cessation: a cross-sectional population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland (1995–2014)

TitrePublic smoking ban and socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence and cessation: a cross-sectional population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland (1995–2014)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSandoval, JLuis, Leão, T, Cullati, S, Theler, J-M, Joost, S, Humair, J-P, Gaspoz, J-M, Guessous, I
JournalTobacco Control
Date Published01/2018
ISSN0964-4563, 1468-3318
Mots-cléscessation, disparities, public policy, socioeconomic status
Résumé

INTRODUCTION: Smoking bans were suggested to reduce smoking prevalence and increase quit ratio but their equity impact remains unclear. We aimed to characterise the socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in smoking prevalence and quit ratio before and after the implementation of a public smoking ban. METHODS: We included data from 17 544 participants in the population-based cross-sectional Bus Santé study in Geneva, Switzerland, between 1995 and 2014. We considered educational attainment (primary, secondary and tertiary) as a SES indicator. Outcomes were smoking prevalence (proportion of current smokers) and quit ratio (ex-smokers to ever-smokers ratio). We used segmented linear regression to assess the overall impact of smoking ban on outcome trends. We calculated the relative (RII) and slope (SII, absolute difference) indexes of inequality, quantifying disparities between educational groups in outcomes overall (1995-2014), before and after ban implementation (November 2009). RESULTS: Least educated participants displayed higher smoking prevalence (RII=2.04, P

URLhttp://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2018/01/25/tobaccocontrol-2017-053986
DOI10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053986

Introduction of an organised programme and social inequalities in mammography screening: A 22-year population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland

TitreIntroduction of an organised programme and social inequalities in mammography screening: A 22-year population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursSandoval, JLuis, Theler, J-M, Cullati, S, Bouchardy, C, Manor, O, Gaspoz, J-M, Guessous, I
JournalPreventive Medicine
Volume103
Pagination49–55
ISSN00917435
Mots-clésBreast neoplasms, Female, Mammography, Socioeconomic factors
Résumé

In developed countries, breast cancer mortality has decreased during the last decades due to, at least partially, the advent of mammography screening. Organised programmes aim, among other objectives, to increase participation and decrease social inequalities in screening access. We aimed to characterise the evolution of socioeconomic disparities in mammography screening before and after the implementation of an organised programme in Geneva, Switzerland. We included 5345 women, aged 50-74years, without past history of breast cancer who participated in the cross-sectional Bus Santé study, between 1992 and 2014. Outcome measures were: 1) never had a mammography (1992-2014) and 2) never had a mammography or not screened in the two years before being surveyed (subgroup analysis, 2007-2014). Educational attainment was divided in three groups (primary, secondary and tertiary) and period in two (before/after introduction of a screening programme in 1999). We calculated measures of relative and absolute change, including the relative (RII) and slope (SII) indices of social inequality adjusted for age and nationality. We compared the prevalence of screening before and after screening programme implementation using Poisson models. The proportion of unscreened women decreased during the study period from 30.5% to 3.6%. Lower educated women were more frequently unscreened (RII=2.39, p

URLhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091743517302736
DOI10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.025

Migrant status and lone motherhood-Risk factors or female labour force participation in Switzerland

TitreMigrant status and lone motherhood-Risk factors or female labour force participation in Switzerland
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBernardi, L, Struffolino, E, Milewski, N
ÉditeurBernardi, L, Mortelmans, D
Book TitleLone parenthood in the life course
Pagination141–163
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland

Analysing the role of social visits on migrants’ social capital: A personal network approach

TitreAnalysing the role of social visits on migrants’ social capital: A personal network approach
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursViry, G, Ganjour, O, Gauthier, J-A, Ravalet, E, Widmer, E
JournalSocial Inclusion
Volume5
Ticket4
Pagination209–220
Date Published12/2017
ISSN2183-2803
Mots-clésdistance, migration, network geography, personal networks, sequence analysis, social capital, social network analysis, social support, social visits, travel
Résumé

There are concerns that migrants may be embedded in far-flung networks with support being less collective. The spatial dispersion of their relatives and friends would result in fragmented networks with lower solidarity and lower mutual trust than densely connected networks based on geographical proximity. This may be particularly true for migrants who rarely meet their relatives and friends face-to-face. Yet, it is unclear what role, if any, distant visits play in migrants’ social capital. This article examines these issues using representative data from Switzerland and a combination of network and sequence analysis. Results show that migrants have more spatially dispersed networks, which, in turn, are associated with higher number of emotional support ties compared to respondents with spatially close networks, yet they are characterised by low cohesion and low trust. Distant visits only partly moderate the influence of spatial dispersion on social capital. People who frequently visit or host their far-flung relatives and friends have more transitive networks and fewer supportive ties than those who see them less often, but they do not have higher trust in them. Overall, distant visits have relatively little impact on social capital, suggesting a network effect that goes beyond dyadic relationships.

URLhttps://www.cogitatiopress.com/socialinclusion/article/view/1164
DOI10.17645/si.v5i4.1164

A multilevel analysis of professional conflicts in health care teams: Insight for future training

TitreA multilevel analysis of professional conflicts in health care teams: Insight for future training
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBochatay, N, Bajwa, N, Cullati, S, Muller-Juge, V, Blondon, K, Perron, NJunod, Maître, F, Chopard, P, Vu, NViet, Kim, S, Savoldelli, G, Hudelson, P, Nendaz, M
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume92
Nombre11
Pagination84–92
Date Published11/2017
ISSN1040-2446
Résumé

PURPOSE: Without a proper understanding of conflict between health care professionals, designing effective conflict management training programs for trainees that reflect the complexity of the clinical working environment is difficult. To better inform the development of conflict management training, this study sought to explore health care professionals' experiences of conflicts and their characteristics. METHOD: Between 2014 and early 2016, 82 semistructured interviews were conducted with health care professionals directly involved in first-line patient care in four departments of the University Hospitals of Geneva. These professionals included residents, fellows, certified nursing assistants, nurses, and nurse supervisors. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and conventional content analysis was used to derive conflict characteristics. RESULTS: Six conflict sources were identified. Among these sources, disagreements on patient care tended to be the primary trigger of conflict, whereas sources related to communication contributed to conflict escalation without directly triggering conflict. A framework of workplace conflict that integrates its multidimensional and cyclical nature was subsequently developed. This framework suggests that conflict consequences and responses are interrelated, and might generate further tensions that could affect health care professionals, teams, and organizations, as well as patient care. Findings also indicated that supervisors' responses to contentious situations often failed to meet health care professionals' expectations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding conflicts between health care professionals involves several interrelated dimensions, such as sources, consequences, and responses to conflict. There is a need to strengthen health care professionals' ability to identify and respond to conflict and to further develop conflict management programs for clinical supervisors.

URLhttp://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001888-201711001-00014
DOI10.1097/ACM.0000000000001912

Feeling loved and integrated or lonely and rejected in everyday life: The role of age and social motivation

TitreFeeling loved and integrated or lonely and rejected in everyday life: The role of age and social motivation
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursNikitin, J, Freund, AM
JournalDevelopmental Psychology
Volume54
Nombre6
Pagination1186–1198
ISSN1939-0599
Mots-clésadult-age differences, isolation, social approach and avoidance goals, social integration
Résumé

Social approach and social avoidance goals (i.e., approach of positive and avoidance of negative outcomes in social situations) are important predictors of the feeling of being socially integrated or isolated. However, little is known about the development of these goals across adulthood. In a large diary study with N = 744 young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older adults (60-83 years), we tested the hypothesis that the adaptiveness of social goals changes across adulthood: Social approach goals were hypothesized to be adaptive during young adulthood when adult social relationships are to be established. In contrast, social avoidance goals were hypothesized to become more adaptive with age as people are increasingly motivated to avoid interpersonal tension. Our findings support these hypotheses: Social approach goals were positively and social avoidance goals negatively associated with younger but not with middle-aged and older adults' daily social well-being. These results were robust across different situations (positive, negative) and different types of relationships (close, peripheral). The study highlights the changing role of social approach and avoidance goals for daily social well-being across adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

URLhttp://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-13324-001.html
DOI10.1037/dev0000502

Personality structure and assessment in French-speaking African Cultures

TitrePersonality structure and assessment in French-speaking African Cultures
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursRossier, J, Ouedraogo, A, Dahourou, D
ÉditeurA. Church, T
Book TitleThe Praeger handbook of personality across cultures
Volume1
Chapter3
Pagination73–103
PublisherPraeger
Place PublishedSanta Barbara, CA

La recherche qualitative consensuelle en psychologie du conseil et de l'orientation [Qualitative consensual research in career counseling]

TitreLa recherche qualitative consensuelle en psychologie du conseil et de l'orientation [Qualitative consensual research in career counseling]
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursMasdonati, J, Froidevaux, A, Rossier, J
ÉditeurSantiago-Delfosse, M, Carral, MDel Rio
Book TitleLes méthodes qualitatives en psychologie et sciences humaines de la santé
Pagination153–175
PublisherDunod
Place PublishedParis, France

Retirement planning: How to deal with different adjustment trajectories?

TitreRetirement planning: How to deal with different adjustment trajectories?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2017
AuteursFroidevaux, A, Baumann, I, Maggiori, C, Wieber, F, Rossier, J
ÉditeurErtelt, B-J, Scharpf, M
Book TitleBerufliche beratung älterer [Career guidance for older people]
Pagination25–53
PublisherPeter Lang
Place PublishedBerlin, Germany
Résumé

This chapter examines whether planning for retirement leads to positive adjustment outcomes. The article reviews several retirement adjustment trajectories and suggests five distinct retiree types. Furthermore, it reports antecedents and consequences of retirement planning. Finally, implications for career counselling interventions are derived.

Psychology and the international labor organization: The role of psychology in the decent work agenda

TitrePsychology and the international labor organization: The role of psychology in the decent work agenda
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursBlustein, D, Masdonati, J, Rossier, J
JournalILO's Network on Future of Work
Mots-clésdecent work, occupational safety and health
Résumé

The initial development of both the International Labor Organisation (ILO) and the psychological study of working can be traced to a period nearly a century ago when the labor market was in the throes of major changes.
Now that many regions of the world are once again facing dramatic and far-reaching transformations in the world of work, the authors believe that it is important to connect the ILO and the psychological study of work and careers to maximize efforts to enhance the quality, availability, and security of work for all citizens across the globe. In this brief paper, the authors discuss some of the ways that psychology can inform the ILO mission.

URLhttp://www.ilo.org/global/research/publications/WCMS_561013/lang--en/index.htm
Short TitlePsychology and the International Labor Organization

The many faces of personality: The DSM-5 dimensional and categorical models and the five-factor model

TitreThe many faces of personality: The DSM-5 dimensional and categorical models and the five-factor model
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursPocnet, C, Antonietti, J-P, Handschin, P, Massoudi, K, Rossier, J
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Volume121
Pagination11–18
ISSN01918869
Mots-clésMaladaptive traits, Personality disorders, Personality traits, PID-5
Résumé

The classical nosographical approach to personality disorders leads to a set of categories that may be considered to be both conceptually and empirically problematic. In this regard, the DSM-5 includes an alternative dimensional model for which the Personality Inventory Disorders (PID-5) has been developed. Our study compares this alternative dimensional model in regards to both personality disorder categories and normal personality dimensions. The 537 participants in our study, 65.4% of whom were women, completed both the PID-5 and the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) screening questionnaire. Among these participants, 273 participants (64.1% women) also completed the revised version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R). A multiple factor analysis indicated that two higher-order principal dimensions described the relationships between the PID-5 and both the IPDE and the NEO-FFI-R. These relationships were analyzed in greater detail using a Principal Axis Factor Analysis. Five and four, respectively, intercorrelated lower-level factors were considered after a parallel analysis that confirmed to a certain extent that normal and abnormal personalities share a common underlying structure. Finally, a multiple regression bootstrap series confirmed the close associations between the PID-5 and both the IPDE and the NEO-FFI-R scales. Our results indicate that the PID-5 offers an alternative perspective for describing symptom syndromes with personality pathology.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917305536
DOI10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.005
Short TitleThe many faces of personality

Basic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships

TitreBasic values, career orientations, and career anchors: Empirical investigation of relationships
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursAbessolo, M, Rossier, J, Hirschi, A
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume8
ISSN1664-1078
Mots-clésBoundaryless career orientation, career anchors, Protean career orientation, relationships, Schwartz's basic values
Résumé

In today’s dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz’s model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz’s values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz’s basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors and meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals’ career choices and paths.

URLhttp://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556/full
DOI10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01556

Gender equality and parental leave policies in Switzerland: A discursive and feminist perspective

TitreGender equality and parental leave policies in Switzerland: A discursive and feminist perspective
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuteursLanfranconi, LM, Valarino, I
JournalCritical Social Policy
Volume34
Ticket4
Nombre4
Pagination538–560
Date Published11/2014
ISSN0261-0183
Mots-clésliveswebsite
Résumé

Taking a discursive and feminist perspective, this paper aims to understand policy changes as well as gendered outcomes in two policy areas within the Swiss welfare state: gender equality and parental leave policies. We conduct a discourse analysis from a social science perspective of policy documents and interviews from 1996 to 2011. Our results show similar discourses concerning welfare responsibility between the two case studies. Specifically, there are opposing state- and economic-oriented discourses, which reveal different gendered assumptions. However, the time period under study shows an increasing mobilisation of discourses arguing for non-state, negotiated solutions between social partners or within work organisations. We discuss the potential risks of gender and class inequalities as well as scenarios for further policy change. Our findings call for an integrative approach to discourse and gender for welfare state analysis in general.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0261018314536132
DOI10.1177/0261018314536132

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