Does vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland

TitreDoes vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursKORBER, MAILYS
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume74
Pagination1-40
Date Published11/2018
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, Switzerland, United Kingdom, vocational education and training
Résumé

Research suggests that vocational education and training (VET) tends to reduce youth unemployment by providing specific skills, thus smoothing the transition from education to work. However, we still know relatively little about whether vocational education provides higher employment rate and wages over the entire working trajectory than holders of lower education: after several years of experience, both groups may indeed have similar skills and thus similar situations on the labour market. We compare the situation in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, two countries sharing a tradition of vocational education but which differ in the specificity and standardisation of their VET system.
Creating a pseudo-cohort with repeated rounds of the UK and Swiss labour force surveys, we use regression models and compare the employment rate and hourly wage of our two groups of interest: individuals with vocational education at the upper secondary level and individuals with no more than compulsory education. We find that VET graduates fare better in terms of both employment and wages over the whole career. This advantage is larger for women than men and, contrary to our hypothesis, larger in the UK than in Switzerland with respect to employment prospects.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.74

Une Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse

TitreUne Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursSauvain-Dugerdil, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume72
Pagination1-35
Date Published10/2018
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésfamille en Suisse, infécondité, qualité de vie, réserve sociale, vie sans enfant, vieillir sans enfant
Résumé

Nous examinons ici si, en Suisse, vivre sans enfant représente une vie florissante, dans le sens de la liberté de «vivre la vie que l’on a raison de valoriser» (Sen, 1999). En utilisant les données de l’enquête suisse sur la famille et les générations (EFG 2013), nous posons trois questions. Nous commençons par examiner si l’existence sans enfant correspond à un mode de vie spécifique qui se répand. Dans un second temps, nous analysons le lien entre l’absence d’enfant et la qualité de vie à travers une série d’indicateurs relatifs au bien-être économique, à la santé, à la gestion du quotidien, aux relations de couple et à la vie sociale. Le bien-être des personnes sans enfants est étudié à deux moments du parcours de vie : durant la période de la parentalité, en comparant les personnes ayant ou non des enfants dans leur ménage, mais aussi pour la vie ultérieure des personnes ayant eu ou non des enfants.

En Suisse, l’infécondité est certes parmi les plus élevées au monde, mais elle ne s’accroît pas et n’apparaît pas comme un projet de vie. D’autre part, les personnes sans enfant n’ont pas une vision plus négative des implications de la parentalité. Nos résultats confirment que dans le contexte suisse les jeunes parents rencontrent des difficultés économiques, vivent au quotidien la pression des tâches familiales et ont une vie de couple de moindre qualité, mais la présence d’enfant au quotidien n’affecte pas la santé de leurs parents. Surtout, nos résultats montrent que vieillir sans enfant est associé à une moins bonne insertion sociale. Les enfants joueraient donc un rôle important dans la construction de liens sociaux forts, «réserves» utiles au grand âge.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.72

Le Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède

TitreLe Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursFioretta, J, Rossier, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume69
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Mots-cléscomparaison internationale, Conflit-travail famille, politiques familiales, santé, sélection sociale, Suisse, travail à temps plein des mères
Résumé

Les travaux sur le conflit travail-famille montrent que les difficultés de conciliation sont plus fréquentes aux âges de la parentalité et chez les femmes, et qu'elles sont associées négativement à la santé. Les désavantages de la conciliation des rôles professionnel et familial pour les mères, souvent pointés du doigt, doivent toutefois être mis en perspective avec les gains économiques et de santé habituellement liés à une insertion professionnelle durable des femmes. Dans cette étude, nous comparons la Suisse – un pays largement dépourvu de dispositif soutenant la conciliation travail-famille - avec des pays de niveau socioéconomique comparable - la Belgique, la France, l'Allemagne et la Suède, dotés d'une diversité de politiques de conciliation. Grâce aux données de l'Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations 2013 pour la Suisse et des Enquêtes Genre et Générations pour les autres pays, nous montrons qu'en Suisse les parents d'enfants de moins de 13 ans à deux temps pleins ("dual earners") déclarent plus de difficultés à concilier le travail et la famille, ont une moins bonne santé auto-déclarée et éprouvent plus de difficultés financières que les couples où seul l’homme travaille à plein temps. A l'inverse, dans les autres pays, les "dual earners" ont des indicateurs de conflit travail-famille, de santé et de bien-être économique meilleurs que les autres couples. Ces résultats soulignent que les dispositifs de conciliation travail- famille (quelle qu'en soit la nature) permettent d'abord aux mères qui ont plus de ressources de s'investir substantiellement dans la sphère professionnelle, un mécanisme de sélection qui au final compense largement –sur l'ensemble des mères qui travaillent à temps plein- les désavantages liés aux conflits travail-famille.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.69

Who Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure

TitreWho Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursBurkimsher, M, Rossier, C, Wanner, P
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume73
Pagination1-41
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Mots-cléscohort fertility, Comprehensive Fertility Profile, foreigner fertility, immigrant fertility, naturalisation, TFR
Résumé

The Swiss Federal Statistical Office publishes data showing that the TFR of foreign women is much higher than for Swiss women. However, statistics from household registration (STATPOP) and from the Family and Generations Survey (FGS) indicate that foreigners have slightly smaller families than Swiss women. How can we reconcile this apparent contradiction? To do this we follow the fertility of cohorts of Swiss and foreign women through their reproductive life. In addition to birth registrations and population totals by age (the input data for calculating the TFR) we also include data on how many children women have at the time of their immigration, emigration and naturalisation.
Using these input data, we compiled the fertility profiles of Swiss and foreign women aged 15-49 (cohorts 1965-2001); these correspond well with the FGS and household register data. Most immigrants arrive childless and start childbearing in the years following arrival; hence, younger foreign women in Switzerland have higher fertility than Swiss women. However, the ongoing inflow of low fertility women ‘dilutes’ the average fertility of older foreign women. Naturalisation–which is more frequent for women with children–significantly impacts the fertility profile of ‘Swiss’ and ‘foreign’ women. We confirmed that the TFR gives an inflated impression of the ultimate fertility of foreign women, and under-estimates that of Swiss women, because foreign women are only in the receiving country (Switzerland) for the most fertile portion of their reproductive career. Our comprehensive fertility model covering the entire reproductive life course better describes fertility differentials by age and nationality.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.73

An index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity

TitreAn index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRitschard, G, Bussi, M, O’Reilly, J
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination289–308
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

Divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis

TitreDivisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursStuder, M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination233–250
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

Markovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories

TitreMarkovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination213–232
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

Sequence analysis: Where are we, where are we going?

TitreSequence analysis: Where are we, where are we going?
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRitschard, G, Studer, M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination1–14
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

Sequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event

TitreSequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRossignon, F, Studer, M, Gauthier, J-A, Le Goff, J-M
ÉditeurRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination85–105
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

Parental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg

TitreParental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Pagination1–25
ISSN0167-5923, 1573-7829
Mots-clésNIRA
Résumé

The study uses administrative data from Luxembourg to investigate fathers’ decisions to use parental leave. We focus on two measures of opportunity cost: the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and the mean salary growth for a period of 6 months for each father. The first measure captures the direct opportunity cost, while the second is a proxy for foregone promotion opportunities. We use Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis. The results suggest a negative relationship between foregone income and taking parental leave. Surprisingly, salary growth appears to be positively related to the hazard of taking parental leave. Coefficients of control variables are in line with previous findings: fathers are more likely to use parental leave if they work in larger organization and for the first child.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9470-8
DOI10.1007/s11113-018-9470-8

Sequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications

TitreSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Type de publicationBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Series TitleLife Course Research and social Policies
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Mots-clésNIRA
Notes

\{:status: in press\}

Older adults’ beliefs about forgetting and aging predict memory self-efficacy above and beyond actual memory performance and mental health

TitreOlder adults’ beliefs about forgetting and aging predict memory self-efficacy above and beyond actual memory performance and mental health
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuteursVallet, F, Agrigoroaei, S, Beaudoin, M, Fournet, N, Paignon, A, Roulin, J-L, Desrichard, O
JournalRevue internationale de psychologie sociale
Volume28
Nombre4
Pagination57–79
ISSN0992-986X
Mots-cléscroyances concernant l’oubli et le vieillissement, sentiment d’auto-efficacité mnésique, vieillissement
Résumé

Le sentiment d’auto-efficacité mnésique (SAM) chez les personnes âgées est lié au déclin de la mémoire et à la santé mentale. Cependant, la relation entre le SAM et les croyances des personnes âgées concernant l’oubli et le vieillissement est rarement évaluée. Dans la présente étude, nous avons fait l’hypothèse que les croyances concernant l’oubli et le vieillissement prédiraient le SAM des personnes âgées, indépendamment des performances de mémoire réelles et de la santé mentale. Nous avons analysé les données d’un échantillon de 298 participants âgés entre 57 et 87 ans, en utilisant trois indicateurs de SAM (y compris un indicateur de changement temporel perçu de la mémoire), une mesure des croyances concernant l’oubli et le vieillissement, et des mesures de performances de mémoire, de dépression, d’anxiété trait, et de santé subjective. Les résultats confirment notre hypothèse, soulignant ainsi la nécessité de considérer l’adhésion aux croyances concernant l’oubli et le vieillissement lorsque l’on examine les variations de SAM chez les personnes âgées., Memory Self-Efficacy (MSE) in older adults is linked to memory decline and mental health. However, the relation between MSE and older adults’ beliefs about forgetting and aging is rarely evaluated. In the present study, we hypothesized that beliefs about forgetting and aging predict MSE for older adults, regardless of actual memory performance and mental health. We analyzed data from a community sample of 298 participants aged between 57 and 87 years, using three indicators of MSE (including one of perceived temporal change in memory), a measure of beliefs about forgetting and aging, and measures of memory performance, depression, trait-anxiety, and subjective health. The results support our hypothesis, thereby highlighting the need to consider adherence to beliefs about forgetting and aging when investigating variations in MSE in older adults.

URLhttps://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychologie-sociale-2015-4-p-57.htm

A cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality

TitreA cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursRemund, A, Camarda, CG, Riffe, T
JournalDemography
Volume55
Nombre3
Pagination957–978
ISSN0070-3370, 1533-7790
Résumé

We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to U.S. males and females from 1959 to 2015. Results show divergence between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study of the hump shape reveals age, period, and cohort effects, suggesting that it is formed by a complex combination of different forces of biological and socioeconomic nature. Male and female humps share some traits in all-cause shape and trend, but they also differ by their overall magnitude and cause-specific contributions. Notably, among males, the contributions of traffic and other accidents were progressively replaced by those of suicides, homicides, and poisonings; among females, traffic accidents remained the major contributor to the hump.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9
DOI10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9

Inégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants

TitreInégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursZufferey, J, Oris, M
JournalEspace populations sociétés. Space populations societies
Volume1-2
Pagination1–23
Date Publishedjun
ISSN0755-7809
Résumé

Dans les sociétés postindustrielles contemporaines, les migrants ont généralement des risques de mortalité plus faibles que les natifs malgré des positions sociales tendanciellement plus basses. La recherche académique peine toujours à expliquer pleinement les origines de ce paradoxe. Bien que les facteurs individuels soient les causes fondamentales des inégalités face à la mort, l’influence de l’environnement social, économique et culturel est aussi décisif. En prenant l’exemple de la Suisse, cet article détermine dans quelle mesure les contextes socioéconomique, culturel et géographique parviennent expliquer le différentiel entre les natifs et les migrants. Par des modèles bayésiens multiniveaux, les auteurs décomposent, pour chaque population, les inégalités spatiales de mortalité dans les communes et les quartiers Suisses., In Western societies, migrants are known to have lower mortality risks than natives although they are characterized by a lower socioeconomic status. Academic research has found some explanations, but the causes of the migrant mortality paradox are still partially unknown. Individual factors are generally seen as the fundamental causes of death, but recent research showed that social, economic and cultural environments also produce inequalities in mortality. This article aims at determining the influence of socioeconomic, cultural and geographic contexts in explaining the mortality differences between migrants and natives. In running multilevel bayesian models, the authors decompose spatial inequalities in mortality between migrants and natives within Swiss municipalities and neighborhoods.

URLhttp://journals.openedition.org/eps/7576
DOI10.4000/eps.7576

Cross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age

TitreCross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of PublicationSubmitted
AuteursIhle, A, Fagot, D, Vallet, F, Ballhausen, N, Mella, N, Baeriswyl, M, Sauter, J, Oris, M, Maurer, J, Kliegel, M
JournalNeuropsychology

The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities

TitreThe relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursIhle, A, Oris, M, Baeriswyl, M, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
ISSN1041-6102, 1741-203X
Mots-clésclose friends, cognition, cognitive reserve, leisure activities, older adults
Résumé

Background:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults.Methods:We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends.Results:A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures.Conclusions:Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals’ cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/relation-of-close-friends-to-cognitive-performance-in-old-age-the-mediating-role-of-leisure-activities/59282D2D93BE51DBEC2CE666939C761C
DOI10.1017/S1041610218000789

Cognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age

TitreCognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursIhle, A, Oris, M, Sauter, J, Rimmele, U, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume45
Nombre3-4
Pagination190–197
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Résumé

\textbf{\textit{Aims:}} The present study set out to investigate the relation of psychological stress to cognitive performance and its interplay with key life course markers of cognitive reserve and social capital in a large sample of older adults. \textbf{\textit{Methods:}} We assessed cognitive performance (verbal abilities and processing speed) and psychological stress in 2,812 older adults. The Participants reported information on education, occupation, leisure activities, family, and close friends. \textbf{\textit{Results:}} Greater psychological stress was significantly related to lower performance in verbal abilities and processing speed. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of psychological stress to cognitive performance were reduced in individuals with higher education, a higher cognitive level of the first profession practiced after education, a larger number of midlife leisure activities, a larger number of significant family members, and a larger number of close friends. \textbf{\textit{Conclusion:}} Cognitive reserve and social capital accrued in early and midlife may reduce the detrimental influences of psychological stress on cognitive functioning in old age.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/488052
DOI10.1159/000488052
Identifiant (ID) PubMed29870984

Cognitive complaints mediate the effect of cognition on emotional stability across 12 years in old age

TitreCognitive complaints mediate the effect of cognition on emotional stability across 12 years in old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursAschwanden, D, Kliegel, M, Allemand, M
JournalPsychology and Aging
Volume33
Nombre3
Pagination425–438
ISSN0882-7974
Mots-clésaging, cognition, cognitive complaints, cognitive impairment, emotional stability, longitudinal mediation, old age, protective factors, Test Construction
Résumé

{Previous research supports a positive relationship between cognition and emotional stability, although findings regarding healthy older adults are inconsistent. Additionally, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this association. Thus, the present study investigated the mediating effect of cognitive complaints on the bidirectional longitudinal association between cognition and emotional stability in old age. The study sample consisted of 500 older individuals (M age = 62.97 years

URLhttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=2018-21485-004&site=ehost-live
DOI10.1037/pag0000246

Adaptation to loss and major life change

TitreAdaptation to loss and major life change
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJopp, D
Book TitleThe wiley blackwell Encyclopedia of adulthood and aging
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Place PublishedOxford, UK

Validation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming

TitreValidation of the Hebrew version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-H): Evidence for a generalizable measure of pathological daydreaming
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursJopp, DS, Dupuis, M, Somer, E, Hagani, N, Herscu, O
JournalPsychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice
PaginationNo Pagination Specified–No Pagination Specified
ISSN2326-5531(Electronic),2326-5523(Print)
Mots-clésDaydreaming, Factor Analysis, Factor Structure, Fantasies (Thought Disturbances), Foreign Language Translation, Mental Disorders, Pathology, Test Construction, Test Reliability, Test Validity
Résumé

Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) is a newly described mental disorder characterized by extensive mental fantasy activity featuring addiction-like longing for fantasizing, accompanying repetitive movement, and feeling hindered in everyday life. This study describes the first validation of a non-English version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS) and provides additional evidence for MD as a clinical phenomenon. The Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale–Hebrew version (MDS-H) is an adaptation of the 14-item English MDS (Somer, Lehrfeld, Bigelsen, & Jopp, 2016), a self-report questionnaire developed on the basis of qualitative information provided by self-identified maladaptive daydreamers (MDers). The MDS-H was administered to 280 individuals aged 13 to 73 years, including 45 self-identified MDers. Findings confirmed the expected 3-factorial structure, scalar invariance in comparison to the English MDS validation sample, and good psychometric properties. MDS-H scores were associated with dissociation, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity. Given high sensitivity and specificity separating MDers and non-MDers, the MDS-H represents a useful tool to assess MD among Hebrew speakers, suggesting the relevance of MD in a non-English speaking culture, and highlighting the potential value of the MDS for world-wide investigation of this condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

DOI10.1037/cns0000162

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