Discrimination in the hiring of older jobseekers: Evidence from two survey experiments in Switzerland

TitreDiscrimination in the hiring of older jobseekers: Evidence from two survey experiments in Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursOesch, D
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume81
Pagination1-36
Date Published12/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésAge discrimination, experiments, older workers, Switzerland, unemployment, vignette study
Résumé

Older workers who lose their job are at great risk of experiencing long-term unemployment. This vulnerability can be due to negative selection into unemployment or to age discrimination by employers. We empirically test three explanations of why older jobseekers may struggle to get reemployed: employers promote internal careers; employers prefer younger workers for physically demanding jobs; employers perceive older workers as being too expensive. We answer this question by analysing two experiments in Switzerland. In a factorial survey experiment, 500 recruiters indicated for fictional CVs with ages 35 to 55 the likelihood of an invitation to a job interview. In a natural experiment, 1200 workers were surveyed two years after their plant closed down, allowing us to compare age gaps in reemployment among workers displaced by the same exogenous event. Combining the two experimental methods allows us to increase internal and external validity. Both the factorial survey among recruiters and the survey among displaced workers show large age barriers in hiring. Unemployed workers aged 55 are much less likely to be considered for hiring than those aged 35 with the same productive attributes. This age penalty is larger for blue-collar workers and clerks than upperlevel white-collar employees, throwing doubt on the internal career hypothesis. By contrast, results for earnings are consistent with the argument that older workers’ reemployment chances are hampered by high wage costs.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.81

The family as (one- or two-step) social capital: mechanisms of support during labor market transitions

TitreThe family as (one- or two-step) social capital: mechanisms of support during labor market transitions
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursVacchiano, M, Yepes-Cayuela, L, Martí, J
JournalCommunity, Work & Family
Pagination1–17
ISSN1366-8803
Mots-cléscapital social, familia, family, juventud, labour market, mercado de trabajo, networks, redes, social capital, youth
Résumé

This paper uses a life-history grid to collect narrative data on the labor market transitions of young people aged 20–34 (n = 98) in order to analyze the support provided by relatives in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. Drawing on social capital theory, we explore these mechanisms by analysing the flow of resources within family networks (one-step social capital) and how relatives mediate with other agents in the labor market (two-step social capital). Hence, we address the diversity of material, symbolic and informational resources provided by relatives during labor transitions in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational reproduction of occupation inequalities. Although the ‘strength of weak ties’ thesis usually associates the use of family networks among disadvantaged groups, our results show that the mobilization of relatives is equally important in upper-class background, in which mechanisms such as nepotism and influence on third-party employers are activated. Among the working classes, family ties help job seekers to reach non-redundant connections in the secondary segment of the labor market. The article contributes by providing a detailed map of the roles played by relatives in a southern European context characterized by precariousness and unemployment.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2019.1687425
DOI10.1080/13668803.2019.1687425

Disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances are associated with low respiratory function in older Age.

TitreDisadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances are associated with low respiratory function in older Age.
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursCheval, B, Chabert, C, Orsholits, D, Sieber, S, Guessous, I, Blane, D, Kliegel, M, Janssens, J-P, Burton-Jeangros, C, Pison, C, Courvoisier, DS, Boisgontier, MP, Cullati, S
JournalThe Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume74
Nombre7
Pagination1134–1140
ISSN1758-535X
Mots-clésaging, health status, Peak expiratory flow, Respiratory system, Socioeconomic factors, www2
Résumé

BACKGROUND: Poor lung function in late life may stem from early-life risk factors, but the epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. We investigated whether individuals who experienced disadvantageous socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) in early life showed lower levels of respiratory function in older age, a steeper decline over time, and whether these relationships were explained by adult-life SEC, body mass index, and physical inactivity in older age. METHODS: We used data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-2015). Participants' peak expiratory flow (PEF) was assessed with a mini-Wright peak flow meter at second, fourth, and sixth waves. Confounder-adjusted linear mixed-effect models were used to examine the associations between early-life SEC and PEF in older age. A total of 21,734 adults aged 50-96 years (46,264 observations) were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Older adults with disadvantaged early-life SEC showed lower levels of PEF compared with those with advantaged early-life SEC. The association between early-life SEC and late-life PEF persisted after adjusting for adult-life SEC, smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index. PEF declined with age, but the effect of early-life SEC on this decline was not consistent across robustness and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early life is a sensitive period for respiratory health. Further considering the effect of SEC arising during this period may improve the prevention of chronic respiratory diseases.

DOI10.1093/gerona/gly177
Identifiant (ID) PubMed31211384

From intentions to births: Gendered paths of realization in a multi-dimensional life course perspective.

TitreFrom intentions to births: Gendered paths of realization in a multi-dimensional life course perspective.
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuteursTesta, MR, Bolano, D
ÉditeurKapella, O, Schneider, NF, Rost, H
Book TitleFamilie – Bildung – Migration: Familienforschung im Spannungsfeld zwischen Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis. Tagungsband zum 5. Europäischen Fachkongress Familienforschung
EditionVerlag Barbara Budrich
Pagination105–124
PublisherVerlag Barbara Budrich
Place PublishedOpladen; Berlin; Toronto:
Mots-cléswww2
URLhttps://www.amazon.de/Familie-Familienforschung-Spannungsfeld-Wissenschaft-Europ%C3%A4ischen/dp/3847422286

The life course cube: A tool for studying lives

TitreThe life course cube: A tool for studying lives
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursBernardi, L, Huinink, J, Settersten, RA
JournalTheoretical and Methodological Frontiers in Life Course Research
Volume41
Pagination100258
Date Publishedsep
ISSN1040-2608
Mots-clésBehavioral processes, life course, Life domains, Modeling, Multilevel, theory, Time interdependencies
Résumé

This paper proposes a conceptualization of the life course as a set of behavioral processes characterized by interdependencies that cross time, life domains, and levels of analysis. We first discuss the need for a systematized approach to life course theory that integrates parallel and partially redundant concepts developed in a variety of disciplines. We then introduce the ‘life course cube,’ which graphically defines and illustrates time-domain-level interdependencies and their multiple interactions that are central to understanding life courses. Finally, in an appendix, we offer a formal account of these interactions in a language that can be readily adopted across disciplines. Our aim is to provide a consistent and parsimonious foundation to further develop life course theories and methods and integrate life course scholarship across disciplines.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260818301850
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2018.11.004

Adding life to one’s added years: Self-regulatory balancing of life domains across old age

TitreAdding life to one’s added years: Self-regulatory balancing of life domains across old age
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursNapolitano, CM, Freund, AM
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
ISSN1040-2608
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260819300474
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2019.04.008

Validating sequence analysis typologies using bootstrapping

TitreValidating sequence analysis typologies using bootstrapping
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursStuder, M
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume80
Pagination1-33
Date Published10/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésBootstrapping, methodology, Null model, sequence analysis
Résumé

In this article, we propose a methodology for the validation of sequence analysis typologies based on bootstraps. The method works by comparing the quality of the obtained clustering with the quality obtained by clustering similar but unstructured data. Several models are proposed in order to test the different structuring aspects of the sequences that are important in life course research, namely sequencing, timing and duration. The framework is extended to multichannel sequence analysis by looking at the structure stemming from the association between the channels.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.80

The great recession and trajectories of vulnerability to unemployment in the UK and Switzerland

TitreThe great recession and trajectories of vulnerability to unemployment in the UK and Switzerland
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursOrsholits, D, Studer, M, Ritschard, G
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume79
Pagination1-31
Date Published09/2019
ISSN2296-1658
Mots-clésemployment, labour market, recession, Switzerland, unemployment, United Kingdom, vulnerability
Résumé

The Great Recession had a profound impact on the labour market. Unemployment increased substantially and rapidly in almost all developed countries in the aftermath. While the unemployment rate began to decrease shortly after the crisis, this did not necessarily translate into a return to pre-recession levels. In fact, it took ten years for employment levels to recover to pre-2008 levels.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.79

Introduction - Ageing as a migrant: Vulnerabilities, agency and policy implications

TitreIntroduction - Ageing as a migrant: Vulnerabilities, agency and policy implications
Type de publicationBook Chapter
Year of Publication2019
AuteursCiobanu, ROana, Fokkema, T, Nedelcu, M
ÉditeurCiobanu, ROana, Fokkema, T, Nedelcu, M
Book TitleAgeing as a migrant: vulnerabilities, agency and policy implications
Edition1st Edition
Pagination1–18
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedOxford, United Kingdom
Mots-cléswww3
URLhttps://www.routledge.com/Ageing-as-a-Migrant-Vulnerabilities-Agency-and-Policy-Implications-1st/Ciobanu-Fokkema-Nedelcu/p/book/9780367180225

How executive functions are associated with event-based and time-based prospective memory during childhood

TitreHow executive functions are associated with event-based and time-based prospective memory during childhood
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursZuber, S, Mahy, CEV, Kliegel, M
JournalCognitive Development
Volume50
Pagination66–79
ISSN0885-2014
Mots-cléschildren, development, executive functions, Focal, Nonfocal, prospective memory, School-age, Time-based, www3
Résumé

A key developmental task of childhood is to gain autonomy and independence from parents and caregivers. Critical to this individualization process is the development of prospective memory (PM), the capacity to remember to carry out future intentions. In recent studies, children's PM performance has been associated with executive functions (EF). A closer inspection of the literature, however, suggests a differential impact of the three EF (updating, inhibition, and shifting) across different PM task types. The current study examined EF and PM capacities of 212 6- to 11-year-old children, examining for the first time both focal and nonfocal event-based PM tasks as well as a time-based PM task in a single sample. Results show that age-differences did not persist above and beyond age differences in children's executive resources. Specifically, updating predicted children's performance on all PM tasks, inhibition predicted performance on both event-based PM tasks, whereas shifting was specifically deployed by the nonfocal event-based task. Supplementary analyses of the time-based PM task illustrate how children monitor the progression of time and how preparatory processes support PM task performance. In sum, the current study presents the first comprehensive look at the specific role of age and three core EF in school-aged children's PM performance.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885201418301394
DOI10.1016/j.cogdev.2019.03.001

Older immigrants living in Switzerland and ambivalence related to return around the retirement period

TitreOlder immigrants living in Switzerland and ambivalence related to return around the retirement period
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursBolzman, CA, Bridji, S
JournalInternational Journal of Comparative Sociology
Volume60
Nombre1-2
Pagination14–36
ISSN0020-7152
Mots-cléswww3
Résumé

The aim of this article is to explore the links between former guest workers’ attitudes toward return, as they approach retirement age, and ambivalence. More specifically, we seek answers to the following two questions: Do older immigrants modify their intentions toward return around the retirement period? If the answer is positive, we then ask: To which factors are these changes related when looking at intentions to return both before and after retirement? These questions have seldom been analyzed in the sociological literature, and their relation to ambivalence has not yet really been explored. After considering the state of the art, both from a sociology of migration perspective and through a life-course approach, we analyze empirically how older immigrants deal with the question of return. Our data come from a representative survey of approximately 300 older immigrants from Southern Europe (Italy, Portugal, and Spain), aged between 65 and 79 and living in urban Switzerland. Our findings show that (1) while a significant proportion of Italian and Spanish older migrants give up the idea of returning definitively to their country of origin and decide to establish their main residence in Switzerland, among the Portuguese, a significant minority wanted to return before retirement and are still planning to return, expecting to recover full citizenship in their “home” country; (2) changes with respect to return intentions mainly concern former blue-collar workers and white-collar employees; and (3) older immigrants who do not see migration as a positive decision demonstrate more ambivalence about return.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0020715218824634
DOI10.1177/0020715218824634

Publishers note: healthy minds 0–100 years: optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts (“Lifebrain”)

TitrePublishers note: healthy minds 0–100 years: optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts (“Lifebrain”)
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuteursWalhovd, KB, Fjell, AM, Westerhausen, R, Nyberg, L, Ebmeier, KP, Lindenberger, U, D. s-Faz, B, Baare, WFC, Siebner, HR, Henson, R, Drevon, CA, Knudsen, GP, Budin-Ljøsne, I, Penninx, BWJH, Ghisletta, P, Rogeberg, O, Tyler, L, Bertram, L, Consortium, L
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Volume47
Pagination76–77
ISSN0924-9338
Mots-cléswww2
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924933817329875
DOI10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.10.005

Stress and prospective memory: What is the role of cortisol?

TitreStress and prospective memory: What is the role of cortisol?
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursBallhausen, N, Kliegel, M, Rimmele, U
JournalNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
Volume161
Pagination169–174
ISSN1074-7427
Mots-clésCircadian rhythm, cortisol, Focality, prospective memory, stress, www3
Résumé

Studies investigating effects of acute stress on Prospective Memory (PM) so far yielded heterogeneous findings. Although results were commonly attributed to stress-induced changes in cortisol, past research did not disentangle effects of cortisol from the effects of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cognitive reappraisal. The present study therefore aimed at investigating the mere effect of cortisol on PM tasks that differently involve prefrontal brain regions (nonfocal vs. focal PM tasks) via a placebo-controlled oral pharmacological intake of 10 mg hydrocortisone mimicking physiological responses to stress. Contrary to our prediction, enhanced levels of cortisol did not affect PM accuracy and monitoring costs, neither for the focal nor the nonfocal PM tasks. These results suggest that changes of cortisol levels do not underlie potential stress effects on PM. Further exploratory results revealed that PM performance was higher in the 3 pm than in the 1 pm placebo group. This means that PM performance, independently of effects of cortisol, seem to vary throughout the day.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074742719300772
DOI10.1016/j.nlm.2019.04.010

The effectiveness of a tactical games approach in the teaching of invasion games

TitreThe effectiveness of a tactical games approach in the teaching of invasion games
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursGouveia, ÉR, Gouveia, BR, Marques, A, Kliegel, M, Rodrigues, A, Prudente, J, Lopes, H, Ihle, A
JournalJournal of Physical Education and Sport
Volume19
Nombre3
Pagination962–970
ISSN22478051, 2247806X
Mots-cléswww2
Résumé

Purpose: The main purposes of this study were (a) to assess the effectiveness of the tactical games approach on students’ invasion game performance when compared to the technique-oriented approach, and (b) to investigate whether there was a difference in motor engagement time (MET) between the both pedagogical approaches. Method: The sample consisted of 79 students (13-16 years), allocated to the Intervention Group (IG) following the tactical games protocol, or to the Control Group (CG) following the technique-oriented approach. Psychomotor performance was assessed by the Game Performance Assessment Instrument. MET was assessed by direct observation. Results: Both pedagogical approaches promoted off- and on-the-ball movement over eight consecutive weeks. Comparing the effectiveness of these two teaching approaches, no difference was found. However, collapsed across the two time points, students had better on-the-ball decision-making in the tactical games approach, as well as more MET. Conclusion: Continued replication of this research including long term follow-up is necessary to further strengthen the generalizability of these findings across alternative school contexts.

DOI10.7752/jpes.2019.s3139

The longitudinal relationship of perceived stress predicting subsequent decline in executive functioning in old age is attenuated in individuals with greater cognitive reserve

TitreThe longitudinal relationship of perceived stress predicting subsequent decline in executive functioning in old age is attenuated in individuals with greater cognitive reserve
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursIhle, A, Rimmele, U, Oris, M, Maurer, J, Kliegel, M
JournalGerontology
Pagination1–9
ISSN0304-324X, 1423-0003
Mots-cléswww3
Résumé

\textbf\textitBackground: Cognitively stimulating activities contribute to the accumulation of cognitive reserve that is proposed to be instrumental for maintaining cognitive functioning in aging. Adopting a novel, more general conceptual perspective including models of vulnerability, we argue that cognitive reserve may modify the longitudinal association between perceived stress and the rate of subsequent decline in executive functioning. \textbf\textitObjective: The present study set out to investigate the longitudinal relationship between perceived stress and subsequent decline in executive functioning over 6 years as measured through performance changes in the Trail Making Test (TMT) and whether this longitudinal relationship differed by key markers of cognitive reserve (education, occupation, and leisure activities), taking into account age, sex, and chronic diseases as covariates. \textbf\textitMethods: We used latent change score modeling based on longitudinal data from 897 older adults tested on TMT parts A and B in two waves 6 years apart. Mean age in the first wave was 74.33 years. Participants reported information on perceived stress, education, occupation, leisure activities, and chronic diseases. \textbf\textitResults: The longitudinal relationship between greater perceived stress in the first wave of data collection and steeper subsequent decline in executive functioning over 6 years was significantly reduced in individuals who had pursued a higher frequency of leisure activities in the first wave. \textbf\textitConclusion: The longitudinal relationship between perceived stress and subsequent decline in executive functioning may be attenuated in individuals who have accumulated greater cognitive reserve through an engaged lifestyle. Implications for current cognitive reserve and gerontological research are discussed.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/501293
DOI10.1159/000501293
Identifiant (ID) PubMed31352460

The role of super-diversity in shaping the perception of and services for older migrants

TitreThe role of super-diversity in shaping the perception of and services for older migrants
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursCiobanu, ROana
JournalJournal of Aging Studies
Volume50
Pagination100792
ISSN08904065
Mots-cléswww3
URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890406519302580
DOI10.1016/j.jaging.2019.100792

A longitudinal study of relations among adolescents’ self-esteem, general self-efficacy, career adaptability, and life satisfaction

TitreA longitudinal study of relations among adolescents’ self-esteem, general self-efficacy, career adaptability, and life satisfaction
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursMarcionetti, J, Rossier, J
JournalJournal of Career Development
ISSN0894-8453, 1556-0856
Mots-cléswww2
Résumé

Self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and career adaptability, which include career concern, control, curiosity, and confidence, are important resources for adolescents who are required to make important educational and professional choices. No studies have investigated how these resources codevelop over time and their impact on life satisfaction. To more precisely study this codevelopment and the impact of these resources on well-being, 357 Swiss adolescents were assessed 3 times during the last 17 months of compulsory school. The results showed an interrelationship between career adaptability and self-efficacy and a unidirectional effect of self-esteem on life satisfaction over time. They also highlighted the importance of career adapt-ability concerns for predicting the other three career adapt-abilities. Overall, the results suggested that in adolescents, higher levels of career adaptability may favor higher levels of general self-efficacy and that higher levels of self-esteem may induce higher levels of life satisfaction. Implications for practice are discussed.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0894845319861691
DOI10.1177/0894845319861691

Who cares? Effects of social approach and avoidance motivation on responsiveness to others

TitreWho cares? Effects of social approach and avoidance motivation on responsiveness to others
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursNikitin, J, Freund, AM
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume45
Nombre2
Pagination182–195
ISSN0146-1672
Mots-cléswww2
Résumé

Responsiveness to others (i.e., our understanding, validation, and support of important aspects of others) significantly contributes to positive social relationships. In the present research, we found evidence that responsiveness has motivational origins. In two experiments, participants who were approaching positive social outcomes had a higher level of responsiveness compared with participants who were avoiding negative social outcomes. A third experiment disentangled the roles of motivation and situation valence. Positive (compared with negative) social situations were associated with higher approach motivation, lower avoidance motivation, and a higher level of responsiveness. However, within a given situation, both approach and avoidance motivation were associated with a higher level of responsiveness. This association was even stronger in negative situations, suggesting that both approach and avoidance motivation might be ways of behaving responsively in potentially difficult social situations. The effects were independent of relationship closeness and partly weaker in older compared with younger adults.

URLhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218781335
DOI10.1177/0146167218781335

The motivational power of the happy face

TitreThe motivational power of the happy face
Type de publicationJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuteursNikitin, J, Freund, AM
JournalBrain Sciences
Volume9
Nombre1
Pagination6
ISSN2076-3425
Mots-cléswww2
Résumé

{People who are cheerful have better social relationships. This might be the case because happy faces communicate an invitation to interact. Thus, happy faces might have a strong motivational effect on others. We tested this hypothesis in a set of four studies. Study 1 (N = 94) showed that approach reactions to happy faces are faster than other reactions to happy or angry faces. Study 2 (N = 99) found the same effect when comparing reactions to happy faces with reactions to disgusted faces. Supporting the notion that this effect is related to motivation, habitual social approach motivation intensified the motivational effect of happy faces (Study 3

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356968/
DOI10.3390/brainsci9010006
Identifiant (ID) PubMed30621081

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