Individual and collective empowerment through ingroup connectedness

TitleIndividual and collective empowerment through ingroup connectedness
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBakouri, M, Staerklé, C
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue40
Pagination1-28
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordscoping efficacy, ingroup connectedness, needs statisfaction, social change commitment
Abstract

During critical life transitions like the transition to adulthood, young people are required to actively deal with a number of adjustments. The challenges and demands are even more complex for members of socially disadvantaged groups (i.e., immigrants). In line with previous accounts of the critical role of co-agency during transitions, we develop and test a model that examines proximal groups’ connectedness as an outcome of individual needs satisfaction and argue for its empowering role both at the personal and the collective level, thus predicting: 1) greater self-esteem and 2) higher commitment to social change actions.

While previous group-based models of psychological empowerment are located at the intergroup level of analysis and based on the relevance of a particular categorical identity, this study suggests an understanding of the role of ingroups in terms of the sense of connectedness they provide and the resulting efficacy beliefs. The study thereby focuses on the less explored meso-level of interactions in individuals’ direct environment.

The model was tested and supported using survey data of youth populations (15-30) from different backgrounds (N = 521). The results point out the importance of this proximal level of connectedness for both personal and societal dynamics, especially amongst immigrants.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.40
Citation Key1488

Vocational training as an integration opportunity? A Swiss case study on struggling young adults

TitleVocational training as an integration opportunity? A Swiss case study on struggling young adults
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsRosenstein, E, Dif-Pradalier, M, Bonvin, J-M
EditorOtto, H-U, Atzmüller, R, Stéphane, TBerthet, Bifulco, L, Bonvin, J-M, Chiappero-Martinetti, E, Egdell, V, Halleröd, B, Kjeldsen, CC, Kwiek, M, Schröer, R, Vero, J, Zieleńska, M
Book TitleFacing trajectories from school to work – Towards a capability-friendly youth policy in Europe
Series TitleTechnical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects
Pagination237-248
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedDordrecht
ISBN Number978-3-319-11435-4
Citation Key1487

Towards a more critical appraisal of social policies – The contribution of the capability approach

TitleTowards a more critical appraisal of social policies – The contribution of the capability approach
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsBonvin, J-M
EditorOtto, H-U, Ziegler, H
Book TitleCritical Social Policy and the Capability Approach
Pagination231-248
PublisherBarbara Budrich
Place PublishedOpladen and Farmington Hills
ISBN Number978-3-8474-0611-2
Citation Key1486

Socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?

TitleSocioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsCullati, S
JournalSociology of Health & Illness
Volume37
Issue6
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN0141-9889
Keywordscumulative advantage and disadvantage model, health trajectories, life course, socioeconomic inequalities, Switzerland
Abstract

Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel, 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.

DOI10.1111/1467-9566.12232
Citation Key1485
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Fragilità e risorse delle persone anziane residenti in Ticino

TitleFragilità e risorse delle persone anziane residenti in Ticino
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2015
Series EditorGiudici, F, Cavalli, L, Egloff, M, Masotti, B
Number of Pages136
PublisherUfficio di statistica
Place PublishedBellinzona, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-88-8468-033-4
URLhttp://www3.ti.ch/DFE/DR/USTAT/index.php?fuseaction=pubblicazioni.dettaglioVolume&idCollana=121&idVolume=1481
Citation Key1483

Anziani al di là dei cliché: La sfida di una realtà molteplice

TitleAnziani al di là dei cliché: La sfida di una realtà molteplice
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsGiudici, F, Egloff, M, Cavalli, S, Masotti, B
EditorGiudici, F, Cavalli, S, Egloff, M, Masotti, B
Book TitleFragilità e risorse della popolazione anziana in Ticino
Chapter7
Pagination129-132
PublisherUfficio di statistica
Place PublishedBellinzona, Switzerland
Citation Key1482

Il ricorso ai servizi domiciliari e il ruolo della famiglia nella quarta età

TitleIl ricorso ai servizi domiciliari e il ruolo della famiglia nella quarta età
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsMasotti, B, Oris, M
EditorGiudici, F, Cavalli, S, Egloff, M, Masotti, B
Book TitleFragilità e risorse della popolazione anziana in Ticino
Chapter5
Pagination87-110
PublisherUfficio di statistica
Place PublishedBellinzona, Switzerland
Citation Key1480

Condizioni di salute, benessere e scambi di servizi nella popolazione anziana residente in Ticino

TitleCondizioni di salute, benessere e scambi di servizi nella popolazione anziana residente in Ticino
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsCavalli, S, Dasoki, N, Dus, D, Masotti, B, Rosciano, A
EditorGiudici, F, Cavalli, S, Egloff, M, Masotti, B
Book TitleFragilità e risorse della popolazione anziana in Ticino
Chapter3
Pagination47-66
PublisherUfficio di statistica
Place PublishedBellinzona, Switzerland
Citation Key1478

Anzianità: Una realtà difficilmente oggettivabile

TitleAnzianità: Una realtà difficilmente oggettivabile
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsEgloff, M, Cavalli, S, Giudici, F
EditorGiudici, F, Cavalli, S, Egloff, M, Masotti, B
Book TitleFragilità e risorse della popolazione anziana in Ticino
Chapter1
Pagination11-18
PublisherUfficio di statistica
Place PublishedBellinzona, Switzerland
Citation Key1477

Working memory and intraindividual variability in processing speed: A lifespan developmental and individual-differences study

TitleWorking memory and intraindividual variability in processing speed: A lifespan developmental and individual-differences study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsMella, N, Fagot, D, Lecerf, T, de Ribaupierre, A
JournalMemory and Cognition
Volume43
Pagination340-356
ISSN0090-502X
Keywordsaging, development, individual differences, intraindividual variability, reaction time analyses/methods, working memory
Abstract

Working memory (WM) and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed are both hypothesized to reflect general attentional processes. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the relationship between WM capacity and IIV in reaction times (RTs) and its possible variation with development across the lifespan. Two WM tasks and six RT tasks of varying complexity were analyzed in a sample of 539 participants, consisting of five age groups: two groups of children (9-10 and 11-12 years of age), one group of young adults, and two groups of older adults (59-69 and 70-89 years of age). Two approaches were adopted. First, low-span and high-span individuals were identified, and analyses of variance were conducted comparing these two groups within each age group and for each RT task. The results consistently showed a span effect in the youngest children and oldest adults: High-span individuals were significantly faster and less variable than low-span individuals. In contrast, in young adults no difference was observed between high- and low-span individuals, whether in terms of their means or IIV. Second, multivariate analyses were conducted on the entire set of tasks, to determine whether IIV in RTs brought different information than the mean RT. The results showed that, although very strongly correlated, the mean and IIV in speed should be kept separate in terms of how they account for individual differences in WM. Overall, our results support the assumption of a link between WM capacity and IIV in RT, more strongly so in childhood and older adulthood.

DOI10.3758/s13421-014-0491-1
Citation Key1476
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Intégrer une Ecole normale supérieure… et après?

TitleIntégrer une Ecole normale supérieure… et après?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBataille, P
JournalFormation emploi
Volume2015
Issue1
Number129
Pagination65-86
ISSN0759-6340
Keywordscheminement professionnel, classe supérieure, division sexuelle de la formation, grandes écoles, inégalités, origine sociale, transition professionnelle
Abstract

Dans le débat public et scientifique sur la démocratisation des élites françaises, les inégalités d’accès aux filières scolaires prestigieuses focalisent souvent l’attention. On sait peu de choses sur les inégalités qui structurent les parcours professionnels des élèves une fois qu’ils ont intégré ces établissements prestigieux. À partir de l’analyse du cas des Ecoles normales supérieures (ENS), cet article formule des propositions conceptuelles et méthodologiques pour que soit prise en compte la manière dont se recomposent certaines inégalités de devenirs professionnels, en particulier en fonction du sexe et de l’origine sociale.

URLhttps://www.cairn.info/revue-formation-emploi-2015-1-page-65.htm
Citation Key1466
Refereed DesignationRefereed

L'enseignement de la socioéconomie à l'université de Genève

TitleL'enseignement de la socioéconomie à l'université de Genève
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsOris, M, Burgnard, S
EditorBürgenmeister, B
Book TitleL'économie au service des citoyens. Essais en mémoire de Peter Tschopp
Pagination131–152
PublisherSlatkine
Place PublishedGenève
ISBN Number978-2-05-102699-4
Keywordsenseignement, socioéconomie
Citation Key1465

Forschungdossier: Trennung und Scheidung - im Längsschnitt (2012-2014)

TitleForschungdossier: Trennung und Scheidung - im Längsschnitt (2012-2014)
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Knöpfli, B
Subsidiary AuthorsMargelisch, K, Zwingli, C
Pagination1-25
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
Abstract

Scheidung nach vielen Ehejahren stellt ein einschneidendes und stressreiches Lebensereignis dar, was sich nicht zuletzt in den geringeren Werten verschiedener Befindlichkeitsindikatoren im Vergleich zu langjährig verheirateten Personen zeigt. Im zeitlichen Verlauf lässt sich jedoch ein deutlicher Erholungseffekt der betroffenen Personen erkennen, insbesondere bei Frauen. Verschiedene Ergebnisse weisen auf einen erfolgreichen Bewältigungsprozess bezüglich der Trennung hin: Fast ein Drittel der Befragten gab an, kein Bedürfnis für die Inanspruchnahme von Hilfe für die Bewältigung der Trennung mehr zu haben, und auch die Beurteilung der Trennung fällt positiver als zum ersten Befragungszeitpunkt aus. Als wichtige Ressourcen können dabei eine neue Partnerschaft, die Unterstützung durch Drittpersonen, mehrheitlich durch Familie und Freunde, wie auch Generativität genannt werden. Auch weisen die Resultate auf eine hohen Stellenwert der partnerschaftlichen Kommunikation hin: Kommunikationsprobleme wurden von beiden Geschlechtern als eine der häufigsten Trennungsgründe angegeben. Ausserdem wurde „Kommunikation in der Partnerschaft“ von der Gruppe der Getrennten/Geschiedenen als häufigstes Rezept für eine erfolgreiche Partnerschaft genannt.

Citation Key1464

Forschungsdossier: Verwitwung im Alter - im Längsschnitt (2012-2014)

TitleForschungsdossier: Verwitwung im Alter - im Längsschnitt (2012-2014)
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K
Subsidiary AuthorsZindel, M
Pagination1-29
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
Abstract

Verwitwung im Alter stellt ein normatives Lebensereignis dar. Dennoch ist die Bewältigung des Partnerverlusts als kritische Transition zu betrachten, welche auch bei günstigen Sozialbedingungen und Unterstützung durch Familien- und Freundeskreis in starkem Masse individuell zu bewältigen ist und im Zusammenhang mit den vorhandenen Ressourcen betrachtet werden muss. Die vor-liegenden Resultate weisen auf Geschlechtsunterschiede in Bezug auf die retrospektive Wahrnehmung der Partnerschaft, die angewandten Verarbeitungsstrategien im Umgang mit dem Verlust sowie der partnerschaftlichen Neuorientierung nach der Verwitwung hin. Der Vergleich der angewandten Bewältigungsstrategien sowie der Befindlichkeitsmasse nach einer Verwitwung zeugt von erheblicher Kontinuität über eine Zeitperiode von 2 Jahren hinweg.

URLhttp://www.psy.unibe.ch/entwicklung/content/forschung/lives/index_ger.html
Citation Key1463

Calendar interviewing: a mixed methods device for a life course approach to migration

TitleCalendar interviewing: a mixed methods device for a life course approach to migration
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsBarbeiro, A, Spini, D
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2015
Issue39
Pagination1-32
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
KeywordsCalendar Interviewing Device, life calendar, life course, life story, migration
Abstract

Life calendars are used in life course research to collect retrospective standardized data in various domains of individual lives (Axinn et al., 1999). In recent years, researchers have been focusing on improving the procedures and the quality of the data collected with life calendars (Belli et al., 2013; Belli & Callegaro, 2009). Belli and collaborators have developed an approach that uses life calendars in interviews to stimulate the processes of retrieval of biographic information. These scholars suggested that, with this approach, life calendars could also be used for qualitative research. Following their lead, this paper presents a mixed methods approach to life calendars in a research project on immigration – the Calendar Interviewing Device (CID). The CID consists of a life calendar for characterizing trajectories and collecting life stories through open-ended interviews. This paper examines the process of interviewing. Interview transcripts were analyzed to put in evidence the ways the calendar has been used by the interviewees to build their life stories. The analysis also focuses on the strategies used by the participants to provide with precision the times and places of events in their lives. The use of the CID results in two types of data: (1) calendars containing standardized data; and (2) audio-recorded narratives for qualitative analysis. The two types of data can thus be analyzed separately or in combination, for example, on case studies.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2015.39
Citation Key1461

Partnerschaft in der zweiten Lebenshälfte – Herausforderungen, Verluste und Gewinne: Studiendesign und methodisches Vorgehen

TitlePartnerschaft in der zweiten Lebenshälfte – Herausforderungen, Verluste und Gewinne: Studiendesign und methodisches Vorgehen
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K
Date Published03/2015
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
URLhttp://www.entwicklung.psy.unibe.ch/content/forschung/lives/index_ger.html
Citation Key1457

Histoire et parcours de vie: la perception des changements sociohistoriques

TitleHistoire et parcours de vie: la perception des changements sociohistoriques
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMartenot, A, Cavalli, S
JournalTemporalités
Volume2014
Issue20
Pagination1-15
Keywordsâge, changements, cohortes, histoire, parcours de vie, perception
Abstract

Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la mémoire de l'histoire rapportée par des adultes appartenant à cinq groupes d'âge allant de 20-24 à 80-84 ans. En particulier, nous nous focalisons sur les événements et changements sociohistoriques, survenus au cours de leur vie, que ces personnes ont retenus comme particulièrement saillants. Sur la base de deux enquêtes menées à Genève en 2004 et 2009, nous avons procédé à une double comparaison : entre les groupes d'âge (ou cohortes) d'une part, entre les réponses données à cinq ans d'intervalle d'autre part. Certains événements (Deuxième Guerre mondiale, chute du mur de Berlin, attentats du 11 septembre par exemple) sont particulièrement rappelés par le groupe d'âge qui entre dans la vie adulte au moment de leur apparition. Ainsi, la perception d'un épisode historique varie selon l'âge des individus au moment de son déroulement et les changements qui se produisent entre dix et trente ans ont un grand impact sur la mémoire. Toutefois, ceci ne constitue pas un mécanisme universel, mais reste soumis à plusieurs conditions, notamment que l'histoire soit porteuse d'un ou de plusieurs changements à cette période.

URLhttp://temporalites.revues.org/2882
Citation Key1456
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Racial preferences in online dating across European countries

TitleRacial preferences in online dating across European countries
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsPotârcă, G, Mills, M
JournalEuropean Sociological Review
Volume2015
Pagination1-16
Keywordscross-national comparison, online dating, race/ethnicity
Abstract

Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we engage in the first cross-national analysis of race-related partner preferences and examine the link between contextual factors and ethnic selectivity. We provide a unique test of contact, conflict, and in-group identification theories. We show that individuals uniformly prefer to date same-race partners and that there is a hierarchy of preferences both among natives and minority groups. Notable country differences are also found. Europeans living in countries with a large foreign-born population have an increased preference for minority groups. The ethnically heterogeneous Swiss population displays the strongest preference for minorities, with the more homogenous Poland, Spain, and Italy, the least. Anti-immigrant attitudes are related to stronger in-group preferences among natives. Unexpectedly, non-Arabic minority daters belonging to large-size communities have strong preferences for Europeans. The results have implications for immigrant integration policies and demonstrate that Internet dating allows efficient selection by racial divisions, perpetuating country-specific racial inequalities.

DOI10.1093/esr/jcu093
Citation Key1455
Refereed DesignationRefereed

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