Does Vocational Education Give a Happy Start and a Lousy End to Careers?

TitleDoes Vocational Education Give a Happy Start and a Lousy End to Careers?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKorber, M, Oesch, D
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume57
Pagination40
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, specific skills, Switzerland, vocational education and training
Abstract

Since the Great Recession, vocational training has been advocated as the solution against high youth unemployment. It gives workers a head start in the labor market and may thus lead to better careers. Yet vocational skills may also become obsolete sooner and leave older workers vulnerable to technological change. We address this issue by comparing earnings and employment over the life course for vocational and general education at the upper-secondary level. We do so for Switzerland, the OECD country with the highest share of youth undertaking vocational education and training (VET), using the Swiss Labor Force Survey 1991-2014 and the Swiss Household Panel. We find that employment prospects for older workers with VET are as good as those for workers with general education. However, general education is associated with higher earnings than VET once workers enter their thirties. There are strong gender differences: Among men, life-cycle earnings with VET exceed those of workers with general education, whereas among women, general education is associated with higher earnings.

Citation Key2153

Inequality of BMI Dynamics: A Socioeconomic and Gender Perspective

TitleInequality of BMI Dynamics: A Socioeconomic and Gender Perspective
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsLipps, O, Zella, S
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume56
Pagination1-23
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsage differences, fixed effects modeling, gender differences, Germany, SES and individual BMI, Switzerland, USA
Abstract

The aim is to understand causal effects of gender, socio-economic status, and ageing on body mass index (BMI) of individuals in three industrialized countries which are characterized by different BMI distributions.
Data comes from three large population representative panel surveys in the USA, Switzerland, and Germany including about 65 000 individuals and 254 000 measurements. Individuals report up to eleven times, measured annually (Switzerland) or bi-annually (USA and Germany). We use fixed effects models to interprete causal effects and random effects models to estimate coefficients of time invariant covariates. We find that not working increases BMI in the US and Germany, in women, and in lower educated individuals. A higher income increases BMI in men and in the US. Ageing is the driving force in all countries, in particular in Germany. Women increase their BMI faster than men, and the lower educated faster than those with a higher education. We conclude that the generally more deprived individuals (women, not working, lower educated, people from less affluent countries) suffer from a comparatively stronger BMI increase over their lifetime.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.56
Citation Key2142

Treatment Versus Regime Effects of Carrots and Sticks

TitleTreatment Versus Regime Effects of Carrots and Sticks
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsArni, P, van den Berg, G, Lalive, R
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume55
Pagination1-40
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordsactive labor market programs, caseworkers, earnings, employment, policy regime, treatment effect, unemployment
Abstract

Public Employment Service (PES) agencies and caseworkers (CW) often have substantial leeway in the design and implementation of active labor market policies (ALMP) for the unemployed, resulting in variation of usage. This paper presents a novel framework in which this variation is used for the joint assessment of different ways in which ALMP effects can operate. We examine an additional layer of impacts - beyond the treatment effects on the treated job seekers - called regime effects, which potentially affect all job seekers and which are defined by the extent to which programs are intended to be used in a market. We propose a novel method to jointly estimate regime effects for two types of programs, supportive (carrots) and restrictive (sticks) programs. We apply this to contrast regime and treatment effects on unemployment durations, employment, and post-unemployment earnings using register data that contain PES and caseworker identifiers for about 130,000 job seekers. The results show that “carrots” and “sticks” treatments prolong unemployment, but carrots increase earnings whereas sticks decrease them. We find regime effects of a similar order of magnitude. Higher intended usage of carrots and sticks reduces unemployment durations, but carrots raise earnings whereas sticks decrease them. We also find interaction effects between carrots and sticks policies. Regime effects are economically substantial. Our comprehensive cost-benefits analyses show that modest increases in the intended usage of carrots and sticks reduce the total cost of an unemployed individual by up to 10%.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2016.55
Citation Key2141

Availability, cost or culture? Obstacles to Childcare Services for Low Income Families

TitleAvailability, cost or culture? Obstacles to Childcare Services for Low Income Families
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsAbrassart, A, Bonoli, G
JournalJournal of Social Policy
Volume44
Issue4
Pagination787-806
DOI10.1017/S0047279415000288
Citation Key2987
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Gender, education, and family life courses in East and West Germany: Insights from new sequence analysis techniques

TitleGender, education, and family life courses in East and West Germany: Insights from new sequence analysis techniques
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsStruffolino, E, Studer, M, Fasang, A
JournalAdvances in Life Course Research
PaginationAdvance online publication
Date Publisheddec
KeywordsEast/West Germany, education, Family life course, gender, Implicative statistic for sequences of typical, Sequence discrepancy analysis, States analysis
Abstract

How do men and women's family life courses differ? Are gender differences in family life courses greater at higher or lower educational levels? And how does the intersection of gender, education and family life courses vary across different macro-structural contexts? This paper addresses these questions comparing East and West Germany during the German division (1961–1990). We thereby compare a strong male breadwinner model in a social market economy in West Germany and a universal breadwinner model in a state socialist system in the East. The analysis uses data from the German National Education Panel (NEPS) and employs two new sequence analysis tools: sequence discrepancy analysis and the implicative statistic for analyzing sequences of typical states. These tools enable us to scrutinize the degree, content, and timing of differences in family trajectories between men and women of different educational levels in the two sub-societies. In line with our expectations, family life courses were more de-standardized in the West compared to the East, and this occurred to the same extent for men and women in both contexts. While we find moderate gender differences in family life courses across all educational groups in the strong male breadwinner context in West Germany, for East Germany gender differences were significant among the medium and lower educated, but not among the highly educated. These findings underline the fact that the intersection of gender and education for family life courses is highly context-specific. They further suggest that different patterns of assortative mating play a key role for gender differences in family life courses. We demonstrate the added value of sequence discrepancy analysis and the implicative statistic to illuminate differences in longitudinal life courses between men and women or other social groups.

URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040260815000714
DOI10.1016/j.alcr.2015.12.001
Citation Key2231
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance in old age: The role of leisure activities after retirement

TitleThe association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance in old age: The role of leisure activities after retirement
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsIhle, A, Grotz, C, Adam, S, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Gabriel, R, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1741-203X
Keywordsactivity engagement, cognitive functioning, cognitive level of occupation, cognitive reserve, cognitive stimulation, older adults, physical demand of job, timing of retirement
Abstract

Background: The role of timing of retirement on cognitive functioning in old age is inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance and its interplay with key correlates of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: Two thousand two hundred and sixty three older adults served as sample for the present study. Different psychometric tests (TMT A, TMT B, Mill Hill) were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their retirement, occupation, educational attainment, and regarding 18 leisure activities that have been carried out after retirement. Results: Earlier retirement (compared to retirement at legal age) was significantly associated with better performance in the TMT A, the TMT B, and the Mill Hill vocabulary test. Moderation analyses showed that in individuals with a moderate number of leisure activities in old age, earlier retirement was related to better cognitive performance, but not in those with a relatively large number of leisure activities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that entering leisure activities as additional predictor significantly increased explained variance in the cognitive measures over and above all other investigated markers of cognitive reserve (i.e., occupation and education). Conclusions: Present data further corroborate the view that leisure activities even in old age may lead to further enrichment effects and thereby may be related to better cognitive functioning. The role of engaging in activities in the context of major life events such as retirement is discussed.

DOI10.1017/S1041610216000958
Citation Key2515
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age

TitleThe relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Fagot, D, Kliegel, M
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1380-3395
Keywordsactivity engagement, cognitive functioning, cognitive reserve, multilingualism, older adults
Abstract

Introduction: Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Methods: Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Results: Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Conclusions: Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the built-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation individuals also engaged in during their life course.

DOI10.1080/13803395.2016.1197184
Citation Key2634
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The influence of high and low cue–action association on prospective memory performance

TitleThe influence of high and low cue–action association on prospective memory performance
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsAlbiński, R, Kliegel, M, Gurynowicz, K
JournalJournal of Cognitive Psychology
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN2044-5911
Keywordscue-action association, prospective component, prospective memory, retrospective component, study times
Abstract

Recent discoveries in the field of prospective memory (PM) show higher accuracy for remembering intentions in which prospective cue and action are strongly associated. In two experiments presented in this paper participants encoded both high and low association cue–action pairs and were later tested on both prospective and retrospective PM components. Results of both studies show higher PM accuracy for the low association pairs compared to high association ones but only for the prospective component (across both Experiments) and only when a high association cue was presented first (Experiment 2). This finding was accompanied by longer study times for the low association pairs and study times were functionally related to later performance (across both Experiments). In the retrospective component higher accuracy was observed for pairs with high level of association (but only in the first Experiment). Data are discussed in the context of metacognitive processes possibly related to the encoding of an intention as well as cue monitoring in case of PM tasks with high memory load and varying task difficulty.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2016.1186675
DOI10.1080/20445911.2016.1186675
Citation Key2687
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Do inhibitory control demands affect event-based prospective memory performance in ADHD?

TitleDo inhibitory control demands affect event-based prospective memory performance in ADHD?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsAltgassen, M, Koch, A, Kliegel, M
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1557-1246
KeywordsADHD, Executive Function, inhibition, prospective memory
Abstract

Objective: Empirical evidence on prospective memory (PM) in ADHD is inconsistent. Differential findings have been related to differential executive control demands. This study aimed at exploring the impact of inhibitory control on event-based PM performance in ADHD. Method: Eighteen adults with ADHD and 18 controls performed a word categorization task with an embedded event-based PM task. In addition participants performed an acoustically presented task that put either low or high loads on inhibitory control processes. Results: Inhibitory load did not differentially affect PM performance: Across both inhibitory load conditions individuals with ADHD showed reduced PM performance when compared with controls. Moreover inhibitory load did not influence PM performance across both groups. Conclusion: Possibly full inhibitory control resources are not necessary during the entire duration of an event-based PM task but may suffice to be employed after cue detection when needing to interrupt the ongoing task. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

DOI10.1177/1087054713518236
Citation Key2689
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Children's planning performance in the Zoo Map task (BADS-C): Is it driven by general cognitive ability, executive functioning, or prospection?

TitleChildren's planning performance in the Zoo Map task (BADS-C): Is it driven by general cognitive ability, executive functioning, or prospection?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsBallhausen, N, Mahy, CEV, Hering, A, Voigt, B, Schnitzspahn, KM, Lagner, P, Ihle, A, Kliegel, M
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Child
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN2162-2965
Abstract

A minimal amount of research has examined the cognitive predictors of children's performance in naturalistic errand-type planning tasks such as the Zoo Map task of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (BADS-C). Thus the current study examined prospection (i.e. the ability to remember to carry out a future intention) executive functioning and intelligence markers as predictors of performance in this widely used naturalistic planning task in 56 children aged 7- to 12-years-old. Measures of planning prospection inhibition crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence were collected in an individual differences study. Regression analyses showed that prospection (rather than traditional measures of intelligence or inhibition) predicted planning suggesting that naturalistic planning tasks such as the Zoo Map task may rely on future-oriented cognitive processes rather than executive problem solving or general knowledge.

URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21622965.2015.1124276
DOI10.1080/21622965.2015.1124276
Citation Key2690
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Benefits in tasks related to everyday life competences after a working memory training in older adults

TitleBenefits in tasks related to everyday life competences after a working memory training in older adults
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsCantarella, A, Borella, E, Carretti, B, Kliegel, M, de Beni, R
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1099-1166
Keywordsaging, everyday abilities, intelligence, older adults, transfer effects, working memory training
Abstract

Objective impact of working memory (WM) training on everyday life functioning has rarely been examined and it is not clear whether WM training gains are transferred to reasoning abilities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a verbal WM training in older adults in terms of specific gains and transfer effects to everyday life and reasoning abilities. community dwelling older adults (from 65 to 75 years of age) were randomly assigned to a training or an active control group. The specific gains in a WM task similar to the one trained were assessed. Transfer effects to everyday life and reasoning abilities were also examined using (i) objective performance-based tasks (the Everyday Problem Test and the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale) and (ii) the Cattell test and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices respectively. the trained group showed specific benefits and transfer effects to one of the everyday abilities measures (the Everyday Problem Test) and in the two reasoning tasks. These results suggest that WM training can positively impact cognitive functioning and more importantly older adults' abilities in everyday living.

URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gps.4448/abstract
DOI10.1002/gps.4448
Citation Key2691
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The effects of task instructor status on prospective memory performance in preschoolers

TitleThe effects of task instructor status on prospective memory performance in preschoolers
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsZhang, X, Zuber, S, Liu, S, Kliegel, M, Wang, L
JournalEuropean Journal of Developmental Psychology
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1740-5629
Abstract

The present study applied a 2 × 2 experimental design to assess prospective memory (PM) development across preschool age and to examine the effect of task instructor status (researcher vs. significant other) on PM performance in 80 preschool children. Participants were required to name pictures (ongoing task [OT]) and to remember to refrain from naming but instead give a different response to certain target cues (PM task). Although the OT was of comparable difficulty for both age groups (as indicated by no performance differences) results still indicated significantly higher PM performance in 5-year-olds than in 3-year-olds confirming the age-related increase of PM capacities between 3 and 5 years. Furthermore results showed a performance-enhancing effect of significant others as task instructors on both age-groups. Post-hoc analysis revealed that 3-year-olds instructed by a significant other still performed marginally worse than 5-year-olds instructed by a researcher underlining the finding that substantial changes of PM capacities take place during early childhood.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1165660
DOI10.1080/17405629.2016.1165660
Citation Key2692
Refereed DesignationRefereed

An individual difference perspective on focal versus nonfocal prospective memory

TitleAn individual difference perspective on focal versus nonfocal prospective memory
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsZuber, S, Kliegel, M, Ihle, A
JournalMemory & Cognition
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN0090-502X
Keywordscue focality, episodic memory, executive functions, latent variable modeling, prospective remembering
Abstract

The present study targeted the question of whether focal versus nonfocal prospective memory (PM) can be distinguished on a construct level and if so to what extent individual differences in these two constructs are related to individual differences in facets of controlled attention and episodic memory. 315 individuals (aged 20–68 years) were administered focal and nonfocal PM tasks as well as indicators measuring updating inhibition shifting and episodic memory. Latent variable modeling revealed that focal and nonfocal PM were two distinguishable but related constructs. Furthermore analyses showed that focal PM was more strongly related to inhibition while nonfocal PM was more strongly related to shifting. Present data support the conceptual hypothesis that focal and nonfocal PM should be conceptualized as two distinguishable but related constructs. Moreover they suggest that both have some but distinct associations to controlled attention.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-016-0628-5
DOI10.3758/s13421-016-0628-5
Citation Key2693
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Val66Met) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms modulate plasticity in inhibitory control performance over time but independent of inhibitory control training

TitleBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (Val66Met) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms modulate plasticity in inhibitory control performance over time but independent of inhibitory control training
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsEnge, S, Fleischhauer, M, Gaertner, A, Reif, A, Lesch, KPeter, Kliegel, M, Strobel, A
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN1662-5161
Keywords5-HTTLPR, BDNF Val66Met, executive function training, neuronal plasticity, response inhibition
Abstract

Several studies reported training-induced improvements in executive function tasks and also observed transfer to untrained tasks. However, the results are mixed and there is large interindividual variability within and across studies. Given that training-related performance changes would require modification, growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity potentially explaining such changes is needed. In the present study, a pre-post-follow-up design (N=122) and a three-weeks training of two response inhibition tasks (Go/NoGo and Stop-Signal) was employed and genetic variation (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined. Because Serotonin (5-HT) signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic variation in the 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR) was also addressed. The overall results show that the kind of training (i.e., adaptive vs. non-adaptive) did not evoke genotype-dependent differences. However, in the Go/NoGo task, better inhibition performance (lower commission errors) were observed for BDNF Val/Val genotype carriers compared to Met-allele ones supporting similar findings from other cognitive tasks. Additionally, a gene-gene interaction suggests a more impulsive response pattern (faster responses accompanied by higher commission error rates) in homozygous l-allele carriers relative to those with the s-allele of 5-HTTLPR. This, however, is true only in the presence of the Met-allele of BDNF, while the Val/Val genotype seems to compensate for such non-adaptive responding. Intriguingly, similar results were obtained for the Stop-Signal task. Here, differences emerged at post-testing, while no differences were observed at T1. In sum, although no genotype-dependent differences between the relevant training groups emerged suggesting no changes in the trained inhibition function, the observed genotype-dependent performance changes from pre- to post measurement may reflect rapid learning or memory effects linked to BDNF and 5-HTTLPR. In line with ample evidence on BDNF and BDNF-5-HT system interactions to induce (rapid) plasticity especially in hippocampal regions and in response to environmental demands, the findings may reflect genotype-dependent differences in the acquisition and consolidation of task-relevant information, thereby facilitating a more adaptive responding to task-specific requirements.

DOI10.3389/fnhum.2016.00370
Citation Key2796
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Prospective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity

TitleProspective and retrospective memory are differentially related to self-rated omission and commission errors in medication adherence in multimorbidity
Publication TypeJournal Article
AuthorsIhle, A, Inauen, J, Scholz, U, König, C, Holzer, B, Zimmerli, L, Bettegay, E, Tobias, R, Kliegel, M
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Adult
PaginationAdvance online publication
ISSN2327-9095
Keywordsforgetting, medication adherence, multimorbidity, prospective remembering
Abstract

{We investigated the relations of self-rated omission errors (i.e., forgetting to take one’s medication) and commission errors (i.e., unnecessary repetitions of medication intake because of forgetting that it has already been taken) in medication adherence in multimorbidity to prospective and retrospective memory performance. Moreover, we examined whether these relations were moderated by the number of medications that had to be taken. Eighty-four patients with multimorbidity (aged 28–84 years

DOI10.1080/23279095.2016.1209675
Citation Key2845
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Insight level in the assimilation process: A comparison of good- and poor-outcome cases in short-term dynamic psychotherapy of depressive inpatients

TitleInsight level in the assimilation process: A comparison of good- and poor-outcome cases in short-term dynamic psychotherapy of depressive inpatients
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsMeystre, C, Kramer, U, Despland, J-N, de Roten, Y
JournalCounselling Psychology Quarterly
PaginationAdvance online publication
DOI10.1080/09515070.2016.1161598
Citation Key2973
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Work-life balance vulnerabilities and resources for women in Switzerland: Results from a national study

TitleWork-life balance vulnerabilities and resources for women in Switzerland: Results from a national study
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsStauffer, SD, Maggiori, C, Johnston, C, Rossier, J, Rochat, S
EditorFaniko, K, Lorenzi-Cioldi, F, Sarrasin, O, Mayor, E
Book TitleGender and Social Hierarchies: Perspectives from Social Psychology
EditionFirst
Chapter8
Pagination117-131
PublisherPeter Lang
Place PublishedBern, Switzerland
ISBN Number978-1-138-93811-3
Citation Key782
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Looking too old? How an older age appearance reduces chances of being hired

TitleLooking too old? How an older age appearance reduces chances of being hired
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsKaufmann, M, Krings, F, Sczesny, S
JournalBritish Journal of Management
Paginationadvance online publication
DOI10.1111/1467-8551.12125
Citation Key1984
Refereed DesignationRefereed

When winning is everything: The relationship between competitive worldviews and job applicant faking

TitleWhen winning is everything: The relationship between competitive worldviews and job applicant faking
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationIn Press
AuthorsRoulin, N, Krings, F
JournalApplied Psychology: An international Review
PaginationAdvance online publication
DOI10.1111/apps.12072
Citation Key1986
Refereed DesignationRefereed

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