The male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment

TitleThe male marriage premium: selection, productivity, or employer preferences? Evidence from panel data and a survey experiment
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsMcDonald, P
JournalLIVES Working paper
Volume75
Pagination1-38
Date Published03/2019
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsemployer preferences, labour market, Male marriage premium, productivity, selection, survey experiment data
Abstract

Survey evidence finds a wage premium for married men over single in most of the western world. Three key theories are put forward as an explanation: 1) marriage makes men more productive and therefore increases their wages; 2) men with higher labour-market productivity, and therefore higher wages, are more likely to be married; 3) employers simply favour married men over unmarried. We use a two-step analysis to test these three theories. In the first step, we analyse national panel data from Switzerland to pinpoint the part of the penalty due to either productivity or selection. We use entropy balancing to match never-married men to married on a set of pre-labour market covariates, thus isolating the selection effect, before we perform fixed effects regressions for productivity effects and to uncover any unexplained residual. We find a premium for married men of 5%, much of which is explained by selection. Next, we seek to uncover employer preferences by using a factorial survey experiment among HR managers (N = 714) in Switzerland. We ask the managers to assign wages to the CVs of fictional job candidates, who vary randomly on their civil status, amongst other characteristics. We can therefore identify employers’ preferences concerning married and unmarried men. We find that recruiters assign a small premium to married men, contingent on the job applied for. Overall, the premiums we find are lower than those previously reported in the literature.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2019.75

Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study

TitleEffect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
Authorsvan der Linden, BWA, Courvoisier, DS, Cheval, B, Sieber, S, Bracke, P, Guessous, I, Burton-Jeangros, C, Kliegel, M, Cullati, S
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Pagination1–12
Date Publishedmay
ISSN1661-8556, 1661-8564
Keywordsageing, Cancer, life course, old age, Socioeconomic conditions
Abstract

Objectives: Living in low socioeconomic conditions during childhood is associated with poor health outcomes in later life. Whether this link also applies to cancer is unclear. We examined whether childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) are associated with cancer risk in later life and whether this effect remained after adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ASCs).Methods: Data for 26,431 individuals ≥ 50 years old included in SHARE were analysed. CSCs were constructed by using indicators of living conditions at age 10. ASC indicators were education, main occupation, and household income. Gender-stratified associations of CSCs with cancer onset (overall and by site) were assessed by Cox regression.Results: In total, 2852 individuals were diagnosed with cancer. For both men and women, risk of overall cancer was increased for advantaged CSCs and remained so after adjusting for ASCs (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10, 1.63, and 1.70, 95% CI 1.41, 2.07).Conclusions: Advantaged CSCs are associated with an increased risk of overall cancer at older age, but results vary by cancer sites and sex. Participation in cancer screening or exposure to risk factors may differ by social conditions.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9
DOI10.1007/s00038-018-1111-9

Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis

TitleSocial and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsLam, J, Bolano, D
JournalSocial Science & Medicine
Keywordsactive ageing, Asia Pacific, health, Latent class models, Older couples
Abstract

Objectives: We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. Method: We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. Result: We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Discussion: Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953618301837
DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.016
Custom 1

{:status: Advance online publication}

The heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents

TitleThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life: Dynamics of activities of daily living performance among nursing home residents
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBolano, D, Berchtold, A, Burge, E
JournalJournal of Aging & Health
KeywordsADL trajectories, longitudinal analysis, multi-state model, nursing home resident, variability disability trajectories
Abstract

Objective: This study investigated the variability in activities of daily living (ADL) trajectories among 6,155 nursing home residents using unique and rich observational data. Method: The impairment in ADL performance was considered as a dynamic process in a multi-state framework. Using an innovative mixture model, such states were not defined a priori but inferred from the data. Results: The process of change in functional health differed among residents. We identified four latent regimes: stability or slight deterioration, relevant change, variability, and recovery. Impaired body functions and poor physical performance were main risk factors associated with degradation in functional health. Discussion: The evolution of disability in later life is not completely gradual or homogeneous. Steep deterioration in functional health can be followed by periods of stability or even recovery. The current condition can be used to successfully predict the evolution of ADL allowing to set and target different care priorities and practices.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0898264318776071
DOI10.1177/0898264318776071
Short TitleThe heterogeneity of disability trajectories in later life

Sequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?

TitleSequence analysis: Where are we, where wre we going?
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRitschard, G, Studer, M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_1
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_1

Does vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland

TitleDoes vocational education give a labour market advantage over the whole career? A comparison of the United Kingdom and Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKORBER, MAILYS
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume74
Pagination1-40
Date Published11/2018
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsapprenticeship, earnings, employment, life course, Switzerland, United Kingdom, vocational education and training
Abstract

Research suggests that vocational education and training (VET) tends to reduce youth unemployment by providing specific skills, thus smoothing the transition from education to work. However, we still know relatively little about whether vocational education provides higher employment rate and wages over the entire working trajectory than holders of lower education: after several years of experience, both groups may indeed have similar skills and thus similar situations on the labour market. We compare the situation in the United Kingdom and Switzerland, two countries sharing a tradition of vocational education but which differ in the specificity and standardisation of their VET system.
Creating a pseudo-cohort with repeated rounds of the UK and Swiss labour force surveys, we use regression models and compare the employment rate and hourly wage of our two groups of interest: individuals with vocational education at the upper secondary level and individuals with no more than compulsory education. We find that VET graduates fare better in terms of both employment and wages over the whole career. This advantage is larger for women than men and, contrary to our hypothesis, larger in the UK than in Switzerland with respect to employment prospects.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.74

Une Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse

TitleUne Vie Florissante Sans Enfant ? Le Cas de la Suisse
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsSauvain-Dugerdil, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume72
Pagination1-35
Date Published10/2018
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsfamille en Suisse, infécondité, qualité de vie, réserve sociale, vie sans enfant, vieillir sans enfant
Abstract

Nous examinons ici si, en Suisse, vivre sans enfant représente une vie florissante, dans le sens de la liberté de «vivre la vie que l’on a raison de valoriser» (Sen, 1999). En utilisant les données de l’enquête suisse sur la famille et les générations (EFG 2013), nous posons trois questions. Nous commençons par examiner si l’existence sans enfant correspond à un mode de vie spécifique qui se répand. Dans un second temps, nous analysons le lien entre l’absence d’enfant et la qualité de vie à travers une série d’indicateurs relatifs au bien-être économique, à la santé, à la gestion du quotidien, aux relations de couple et à la vie sociale. Le bien-être des personnes sans enfants est étudié à deux moments du parcours de vie : durant la période de la parentalité, en comparant les personnes ayant ou non des enfants dans leur ménage, mais aussi pour la vie ultérieure des personnes ayant eu ou non des enfants.

En Suisse, l’infécondité est certes parmi les plus élevées au monde, mais elle ne s’accroît pas et n’apparaît pas comme un projet de vie. D’autre part, les personnes sans enfant n’ont pas une vision plus négative des implications de la parentalité. Nos résultats confirment que dans le contexte suisse les jeunes parents rencontrent des difficultés économiques, vivent au quotidien la pression des tâches familiales et ont une vie de couple de moindre qualité, mais la présence d’enfant au quotidien n’affecte pas la santé de leurs parents. Surtout, nos résultats montrent que vieillir sans enfant est associé à une moins bonne insertion sociale. Les enfants joueraient donc un rôle important dans la construction de liens sociaux forts, «réserves» utiles au grand âge.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.72

Le Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède

TitleLe Travail Rémunéré à Temps Plein des Mères : Malédiction ou Bénédiction? - Le Cas Singulier de la Suisse Comparé à la Belgique, la France, l’Allemagne et la Suède
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsFioretta, J, Rossier, C
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume69
Pagination1-30
PublisherNCCR LIVES
ISSNISSN 2296-1658
Keywordscomparaison internationale, Conflit-travail famille, politiques familiales, santé, sélection sociale, Suisse, travail à temps plein des mères
Abstract

Les travaux sur le conflit travail-famille montrent que les difficultés de conciliation sont plus fréquentes aux âges de la parentalité et chez les femmes, et qu'elles sont associées négativement à la santé. Les désavantages de la conciliation des rôles professionnel et familial pour les mères, souvent pointés du doigt, doivent toutefois être mis en perspective avec les gains économiques et de santé habituellement liés à une insertion professionnelle durable des femmes. Dans cette étude, nous comparons la Suisse – un pays largement dépourvu de dispositif soutenant la conciliation travail-famille - avec des pays de niveau socioéconomique comparable - la Belgique, la France, l'Allemagne et la Suède, dotés d'une diversité de politiques de conciliation. Grâce aux données de l'Enquête sur les Familles et les Générations 2013 pour la Suisse et des Enquêtes Genre et Générations pour les autres pays, nous montrons qu'en Suisse les parents d'enfants de moins de 13 ans à deux temps pleins ("dual earners") déclarent plus de difficultés à concilier le travail et la famille, ont une moins bonne santé auto-déclarée et éprouvent plus de difficultés financières que les couples où seul l’homme travaille à plein temps. A l'inverse, dans les autres pays, les "dual earners" ont des indicateurs de conflit travail-famille, de santé et de bien-être économique meilleurs que les autres couples. Ces résultats soulignent que les dispositifs de conciliation travail- famille (quelle qu'en soit la nature) permettent d'abord aux mères qui ont plus de ressources de s'investir substantiellement dans la sphère professionnelle, un mécanisme de sélection qui au final compense largement –sur l'ensemble des mères qui travaillent à temps plein- les désavantages liés aux conflits travail-famille.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.69

Who Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure

TitleWho Has More Children in Switzerland: Swiss Or Foreign Women? - Why The TFR is a Misleading Measure
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBurkimsher, M, Rossier, C, Wanner, P
JournalLIVES Working Paper
Volume73
Pagination1-41
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Keywordscohort fertility, Comprehensive Fertility Profile, foreigner fertility, immigrant fertility, naturalisation, TFR
Abstract

The Swiss Federal Statistical Office publishes data showing that the TFR of foreign women is much higher than for Swiss women. However, statistics from household registration (STATPOP) and from the Family and Generations Survey (FGS) indicate that foreigners have slightly smaller families than Swiss women. How can we reconcile this apparent contradiction? To do this we follow the fertility of cohorts of Swiss and foreign women through their reproductive life. In addition to birth registrations and population totals by age (the input data for calculating the TFR) we also include data on how many children women have at the time of their immigration, emigration and naturalisation.
Using these input data, we compiled the fertility profiles of Swiss and foreign women aged 15-49 (cohorts 1965-2001); these correspond well with the FGS and household register data. Most immigrants arrive childless and start childbearing in the years following arrival; hence, younger foreign women in Switzerland have higher fertility than Swiss women. However, the ongoing inflow of low fertility women ‘dilutes’ the average fertility of older foreign women. Naturalisation–which is more frequent for women with children–significantly impacts the fertility profile of ‘Swiss’ and ‘foreign’ women. We confirmed that the TFR gives an inflated impression of the ultimate fertility of foreign women, and under-estimates that of Swiss women, because foreign women are only in the receiving country (Switzerland) for the most fertile portion of their reproductive career. Our comprehensive fertility model covering the entire reproductive life course better describes fertility differentials by age and nationality.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2018.73

An index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity

TitleAn index of precarity for measuring early employment insecurity
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRitschard, G, Bussi, M, O’Reilly, J
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination289–308
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

A vast body of research examined changing employment relations and the ensued employment precarity. However there is a lack of quantitative tools able to assess the extent and impact of precarity overtime and at the individual level. Using the index of complexity as a starting point, we aim to create an index of precarity accounting for the benefit or loss entailed by each transition. Including the nature of each transition and the unpredictability of the whole employment trajectory in the index allows researchers to grasp both the complexity and the quality of young people’s employment trajectories. Our contribution shows how the proposed index provides a synthetic measure for comparing the degree of precarity. Results from a school-to-work transition dataset confirm the usefulness of the index as a predictor of future negative labour market trajectories.

Notes

\{:status: Advance online publication\}

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2_16
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_16

Divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis

TitleDivisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsStuder, M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Pagination233–239
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

This paper discusses the usefulness of divisive property-based and fuzzy clustering for sequence analysis. Divisive property-based clustering provides well-defined clustering membership rules. Aside from significantly simplifying interpretations of clustering, it is also useful when one plans to use the same typology in other samples or studies. We further enrich the methods by proposing new sets of sequence features that can be automatically extracted and used in the procedure. We then discuss the use of fuzzy clustering, where sequences belong to each cluster with an estimated membership strength. This approach is particularly useful when some sequences are thought to lie between two (or more) sequence types (i.e., hybrid-type sequences) or when only a weak structure is found in the data. This paper also discusses several methods by which to visualize a fuzzy clustering solution, and analyzes them with regression-like approaches. It also introduces R code to run all the discussed analyses; all the proposed developments are made available in the WeightedCluster R package.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_13

Markovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories

TitleMarkovian-based clustering of internet addiction trajectories
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsTaushanov, Z, Berchtold, A
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination203-222
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_12

Sequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event

TitleSequence history analysis (SHA): Estimating the effect of past trajectories on an upcoming event
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRossignon, F, Studer, M, Gauthier, J-A, Le Goff, J-M
EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Book TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications.
Pagination83–100
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
Abstract

In this article, we propose an innovative method which is a combination of Sequences Analysis and Event History Analysis. We called this method Sequence History Analysis (SHA). We start by identifying typical past trajectories of individuals over time by using Sequence Analysis. We then estimate the effect of these typical past trajectories on the event under study using discrete-time models. The aim of this approach is to estimate the effect of past trajectories on the chances of experiencing an event. We apply the proposed methodological approach to an original study of the effect of past childhood co-residence structures on the chances of leaving the parental home in Switzerland. The empirical research was based on the LIVES Cohort study, a panel survey that started in autumn 2013 in Switzerland. Analyses show that it is not only the occurrence of an event that increases the risk of experiencing another event, but also the order in which various states occurred. What is more, it seems that two features have a significant influence on departure from the parental home: the co-residence structures and the arrival or departure of siblings from the parental home.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2_6
Short TitleSequence history analysis (SHA)

Parental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg

TitleParental Leave Take-Up of Fathers in Luxembourg
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsZhelyazkova, N, Ritschard, G
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Volume37
Pagination769-793
ISSN0167-5923, 1573-7829
KeywordsFather and parental leave, parental leave, Work–family reconciliation
Abstract

The study uses administrative data from Luxembourg to investigate fathers’ decisions to use parental leave. We focus on two measures of opportunity cost: the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and the mean salary growth for a period of 6 months for each father. The first measure captures the direct opportunity cost, while the second is a proxy for foregone promotion opportunities. We use Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis. The results suggest a negative relationship between foregone income and taking parental leave. Surprisingly, salary growth appears to be positively related to the hazard of taking parental leave. Coefficients of control variables are in line with previous findings: fathers are more likely to use parental leave if they work in larger organization and for the first child.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11113-018-9470-8
DOI10.1007/s11113-018-9470-8

Sequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications

TitleSequence analysis and related approaches : Innovative methods and applications
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2018
Series EditorRitschard, G, Studer, M
Series TitleLife Course Research and social Policies
Volume10
PublisherSpringer
Place PublishedCham, Switzerland
ISBN978-3-319-95420-2
Keywordsdual-earner couples, family and work trajectories, gendered occupational trajectories, life, life course, longitudinal data, Markov models, multistate models, network-based sequence analysis, open access, population dynamics, survival analysis
Abstract

This open access book provides innovative methods and original applications of sequence analysis (SA) and related methods for analysing longitudinal data describing life trajectories such as professional careers, family paths, the succession of health statuses, or the time use. The applications as well as the methodological contributions proposed in this book pay special attention to the combined use of SA and other methods for longitudinal data such as event history analysis, Markov modelling, and sequence network. The methodological contributions in this book include among others original propositions for measuring the precarity of work trajectories, Markov-based methods for clustering sequences, fuzzy and monothetic clustering of sequences, network-based SA, joint use of SA and hidden Markov models, and of SA and survival models. The applications cover the comparison of gendered occupational trajectories in Germany, the study of the changes in women market participation in Denmark, the study of typical day of dual-earner couples in Italy, of mobility patterns in Togo, of internet addiction in Switzerland, and of the quality of employment career after a first unemployment spell. As such this book provides a wealth of information for social scientists interested in quantitative life course analysis, and all those working in sociology, demography, economics, health, psychology, social policy, and statistics.

URLhttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95420-2#about
DOI10.1007/978-3-319-95420-2

A cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality

TitleA cause-of-death decomposition of young adult excess mortality
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsRemund, A, Camarda, CG, Riffe, T
JournalDemography
Volume55
Number3
Pagination957–978
ISSN0070-3370, 1533-7790
Abstract

We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to U.S. males and females from 1959 to 2015. Results show divergence between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study of the hump shape reveals age, period, and cohort effects, suggesting that it is formed by a complex combination of different forces of biological and socioeconomic nature. Male and female humps share some traits in all-cause shape and trend, but they also differ by their overall magnitude and cause-specific contributions. Notably, among males, the contributions of traffic and other accidents were progressively replaced by those of suicides, homicides, and poisonings; among females, traffic accidents remained the major contributor to the hump.

URLhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9
DOI10.1007/s13524-018-0680-9

Inégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants

TitleInégalités spatiales de mortalité en Suisse : l’influence des contextes sur les différentiels entre natifs et migrants
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsZufferey, J, Oris, M
JournalEspace populations sociétés [Space populations societies]
Volume1-2
Pagination1–23
ISSN0755-7809
Abstract

Dans les sociétés postindustrielles contemporaines, les migrants ont généralement des risques de mortalité plus faibles que les natifs malgré des positions sociales tendanciellement plus basses. La recherche académique peine toujours à expliquer pleinement les origines de ce paradoxe. Bien que les facteurs individuels soient les causes fondamentales des inégalités face à la mort, l’influence de l’environnement social, économique et culturel est aussi décisif. En prenant l’exemple de la Suisse, cet article détermine dans quelle mesure les contextes socioéconomique, culturel et géographique parviennent expliquer le différentiel entre les natifs et les migrants. Par des modèles bayésiens multiniveaux, les auteurs décomposent, pour chaque population, les inégalités spatiales de mortalité dans les communes et les quartiers Suisses.
In Western societies, migrants are known to have lower mortality risks than natives although they are characterized by a lower socioeconomic status. Academic research has found some explanations, but the causes of the migrant mortality paradox are still partially unknown. Individual factors are generally seen as the fundamental causes of death, but recent research showed that social, economic and cultural environments also produce inequalities in mortality. This article aims at determining the influence of socioeconomic, cultural and geographic contexts in explaining the mortality differences between migrants and natives. In running multilevel bayesian models, the authors decompose spatial inequalities in mortality between migrants and natives within Swiss municipalities and neighborhoods.

URLhttp://journals.openedition.org/eps/7576
DOI10.4000/eps.7576

Cross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age

TitleCross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsIhle, A, Fagot, D, Vallet, F, Ballhausen, N, Mella, N, Baeriswyl, M, Sauter, J, Oris, M, Maurer, J, Kliegel, M
JournalNeuropsychology
Volume33
Number2
Pagination234-244
Keywordsactivities, cognition, cognitive reserve, life course, longitudinal study
Abstract

With respect to ongoing debates in gerontological neuropsychology concerning whether activity predicts cognitive functioning over time, present cross-lagged investigations over 6 years suggest that late-life leisure activity participation may predict later cognitive status in terms of Trail Making Test performance but, notably, only in certain individuals such as young-old adults, individuals who had less cognitively demanding jobs in midlife, and those with high vocabulary (as a proxy of crystallized intelligence).

URLhttps://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-49051-001.html
DOI10.1037/neu0000497
Short TitleCross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance six years later

The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities

TitleThe relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Baeriswyl, M, Kliegel, M
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
ISSN1041-6102, 1741-203X
Keywordsclose friends, cognition, cognitive reserve, leisure activities, older adults
Abstract

Background: From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. Results: A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Conclusions: Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals’ cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

URLhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/relation-of-close-friends-to-cognitive-performance-in-old-age-the-mediating-role-of-leisure-activities/59282D2D93BE51DBEC2CE666939C761C
DOI10.1017/S1041610218000789
Short Titlehe relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age

Cognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age

TitleCognitive Reserve and Social Capital Accrued in Early and Midlife Moderate the Relation of Psychological Stress to Cognitive Performance in Old Age
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsIhle, A, Oris, M, Sauter, J, Rimmele, U, Kliegel, M
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Volume45
Pagination190–197
ISSN1420-8008, 1421-9824
Keywordscognitive functioning, Cognitive level of job, cognitive reserve, education, Family and friends, leisure activities, life course, older adults, Psychological stress, social capital
Abstract

Aims: The present study set out to investigate the relation of psychological stress to cognitive performance and its interplay with key life course markers of cognitive reserve and social capital in a large sample of older adults. Methods: We assessed cognitive performance (verbal abilities and processing speed) and psychological stress in 2,812 older adults. The Participants reported information on education, occupation, leisure activities, family, and close friends. Results: Greater psychological stress was significantly related to lower performance in verbal abilities and processing speed. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of psychological stress to cognitive performance were reduced in individuals with higher education, a higher cognitive level of the first profession practiced after education, a larger number of midlife leisure activities, a larger number of significant family members, and a larger number of close friends. Conclusion: Cognitive reserve and social capital accrued in early and midlife may reduce the detrimental influences of psychological stress on cognitive functioning in old age.

URLhttps://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/488052
DOI10.1159/000488052
PubMed ID29870984

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