The feminization of occupations and wage change: a panel analysis of Britain, Germany and Switzerland

TitleThe feminization of occupations and wage change: a panel analysis of Britain, Germany and Switzerland
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMurphy, E, Oesch, D
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2014
Number31
Pagination1-31
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordsdiscrimination, gender, occupations, panel data, wage inequality
Abstract

In the last four decades, women have made major inroads into occupations previously dominated by men. This paper examines whether occupational feminization is accompanied by a decline in wages: Do workers suffer a wage penalty if they remain in, or move into, feminizing occupations? We analzye this question over the 1990s and 2000s in Britain, Germany and Switzerland, using longitudinal panel data to estimate individual fixed effects for men and women. Moving from an entirely male to an entirely female occupation entails a loss in individual earnings of ten percent in Britain and four percent in Germany, but is not significant in Switzerland. The impact of occupational feminization on wages is not linear, but sets apart occupations holding less than 40 percent from those with more than 60 percent of women. Only moving into the latter incurs a wage penalty. Contrary to the prevailing idea in economics, differences in productivity – human capital, job-specific skill requirements and time investment – do not fully explain the wage gap between male and female occupations. This finding suggests that wage disparities across male and female occupations are in part due to unequal gender norms.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2014.31
Citation Key1074

L'économie solidaire en Bolivie. Entre marché et démocratie

TitleL'économie solidaire en Bolivie. Entre marché et démocratie
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsHillenkamp, I
Series TitleDéveloppements
PublisherKarthala
Place PublishedParis
ISBN Number9782811110512
KeywordsBolivie, commerce équitable, économie solidaire, espace public, microfinance, mouvement social, protection, réciprocité, redistribution, solidarité
URLhttp://www.karthala.com/developpements/2765-l-economie-solidaire-en-bolivie-entre-marche-et-democratie-9782811110512.html
Citation Key1048

Droit au travail et responsabilité individuelle dans les États sociaux contemporains. Une analyse en termes de capabilités des politiques d’activation des personnes sans emploi

TitleDroit au travail et responsabilité individuelle dans les États sociaux contemporains. Une analyse en termes de capabilités des politiques d’activation des personnes sans emploi
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsBonvin, J-M, Moachon, E
JournalEuropean journal of Human Rights
Volume2013
Number5
Pagination777-803
Abstract

Résumé
Le droit au travail s’est longtemps limité à son versant négatif, c’est-à-dire à l’interdiction de certaines activités professionnelles jugées incompatibles avec la dignité humaine. L’essor des politiques d’activation donne l’occasion d’envisager une action sur le versant positif du droit au travail en accroissant les possibilités d’agir et la liberté de choix des demandeurs d’emploi. Cet article vise à identifier les figures de la responsabilisation des individus sous-jacentes aux politiques d’activation et propose une grille normative inspirée de l’approche par les capabilités du philosophe et économiste Amartya Sen permettant de les évaluer. Il confronte ensuite les principaux modèles d’État-providence à cette grille analytique. La conclusion met en lumière les conditions d’une activation et d’une responsabilisation des personnes sans emploi qui soient compatibles avec les exigences de l’approche par les capabilités et montre en quoi les pratiques actuelles se démarquent de ce modèle.

Abstract
The right to work has long been confined to its negative dimension – that is to say the prohibition of certain professional activities judged to be incompatible with human dignity. The rise of activation policies provides the opportunity to consider an action on the positive dimension of the right to work, by empowering job-seekers and enhancing their freedom to choose. This contribution seeks to identify the diverse conceptions of (individual and/or social) responsibility underlying activation policies and suggests a normative grid inspired by the capability approach of the philosopher and economist Amartya Sen in order to assess them. The paper then confronts the main models of the Welfare State to the grid. The conclusion brings to light the conditions to be respected for a capability-friendly activation and responsibilization of the unemployed, and shows how current practices diverge from that model.

Citation Key1039
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Politiques d’activation des jeunes et modalités d’accompagnement. Le cas du programme FORJAD en Suisse

TitlePolitiques d’activation des jeunes et modalités d’accompagnement. Le cas du programme FORJAD en Suisse
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsBonvin, J-M, Dif-Pradalier, M, Rosenstein, E
JournalLien social et Politiques
Number70
Pagination13-27
Abstract

L’article analyse les récents développements de l’accompagnement social à partir d’une étude approfondie du programme FORJAD (formation pour jeunes adultes en difficulté) permettant à de jeunes adultes inscrits à l’aide sociale suisse d’accéder à une formation professionnelle. À partir d’une étude comparant la nature et les modalités d’intervention de différentes figures professionnelles auprès de ces jeunes (assistants sociaux, professionnels des mesures d’insertion, coachs), nous questionnons la normativité de ces nouvelles formes d’accompagnement social et évaluons leur potentiel d’autonomisation réelle des bénéficiaires à l’aune de l’approche par les capacités développée par Amartya Sen.

Citation Key1038
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Patients’ and partners’ expressed emotion in couples where the woman has breast cancer

TitlePatients’ and partners’ expressed emotion in couples where the woman has breast cancer
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCharvoz, L, Favez, N, Cairo Notari, S, Panes-Ruedin, B, Antonini, T, Delaloye, J-F
JournalPsycho-Oncology
Volume22
NumberSuppl. 3
Pagination3-4
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Expressed Emotion (EE) is a construct assessing the emotional attitudes of relatives of individual with medical or psychiatric condition. Criticism, hostility, emotional overinvolvement are interpersonal aspects included in the EE-concept. The association between EE and the frequency and severity of symptoms, the patients’ management or adjustment to the illness were shown in medical diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or asthma. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between EE and breast cancer.

METHOD: Forty-two women diagnosed with a breast cancer were recruited in order to take part to a longitudinal study. Women and their partner completed a set of questionnaires evaluating their psychological distress (BSI-18, Zabora et al., 2001), their attitudes towards the partner (FAS, Kavanagh et al., 1997) and their relationship’s satisfaction (RAS, Hendrick, 1988). Moreover women filled in the QLQ-BR23 (EORTEC, 1996) assessing symptoms related to the treatment. Finally, each partner was filmed during 5 minutes talking about the other one and their relationship in order to assess EE (FMSS, Magana et al., 1986).

RESULTS: Preliminary results showed associations between partner’s negative attitudes towards the patient and the relationship (High Expressed Emotion HEE) and the level of somatisation, depression and anxiety of the patient. Women showing themselves toward their partners HEE reported higher scores in the scale assessing physical problems related to the operation and in the subscales evaluating their level of depression, anxiety and somatisation than women with a positive attitude (Low Expressed Emotion). Moreover, partner’s level of depression, anxiety and somatisation was higher in couples with a HEE woman. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results of this research suggested associations between EE and psychological distress in the context of breast cancer. These results encourage pursuing investigations in this direction. In addition the associations between the patient’s EE and physical problems related to the operation may support the idea to examine the question of whether the EE of the patient and of the partner can affect the course and outcome of the illness.

RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: This project demonstrated how the EEconstruct initially developed to be used in the psychiatric context could be adapted to medical conditions. Furthermore this study examined as well the EE of the partner as the EE of the patient. Indeed so far studies have only focused on the partner’s EE. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Results of the study will be useful for the development of psychosocial interventions for the patients and their partner. The association between patient’s psychological distress and HEE of each partner talks for a double intervention: 1) an individual one in couples with a HEE women (focusing on the own attitude and emotional-cognitive perspective) and/or 2) a couple-oriented one in couples with a HEE partner.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF FUNDING: This project benefited from the support of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES – Overcoming vulnerability: life course perspectives, which is financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Citation Key1029
Refereed DesignationRefereed

The contribution of attachment to psychological adjustment in women facing breast cancer

TitleThe contribution of attachment to psychological adjustment in women facing breast cancer
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCairo Notari, S, Favez, N, Charvoz, L, Notari, L, Panes-Ruedin, B, Delaloye, J-F
JournalPsycho-Oncology
Volume22
NumberSuppl. 3
Pagination347-348
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Attachment theory provides a general model for understanding the way individuals emotionally react when stressed. Two main dimensions of attachment have been identified: anxiety (to exacerbate the emotional needs and dependence to others) and avoidance (to downplay threat and distress).This study examines the association between treatment-related physical symptoms of breast cancer, anxious or avoidant attachment, and psychological distress in women.

METHOD: This study is part of a larger project on the role of social support in women facing cancer. Women were recruited during hospitalisation at the Breast Centre of the University Hospital of Lausanne. For this study, we used data from 72 women. Their mean age is 53.73 (SD = 12.17). After surgery, women completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC-QLQ BR23) for physical symptoms; the Experiences in Close Relationships-revised (ECR-R) for adult attachment; and the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI-18) for psychological distress. Several socio-demographic and medical data were used as control variables.

RESULTS: Different multiple regression models have been tested to examine the link between physical symptoms, attachment styles and psychological distress. Contrarily to our hypothesis, anxiety does not moderate but instead directly predicts distress. On the contrary, avoidant attachment has a moderating effect on the link between physical symptoms and distress. Nevertheless, the best-fit model includes physical symptoms, anxious attachment and neoadjuvant treatment (control variable) as predictors; this model accounts for 50.7% of the variance in distress. In this model no direct nor moderating effect for avoidant attachment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that attachment plays a role in adjustment to breast cancer. This result demonstrates that women’s response to stress is not only determined by disease-specific variables but also by their general way of regulating emotions which is a trait of their personality. Interventions aiming at helping women to cope with breast cancer should take into account individual variability in emotion regulation to be more efficient.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF FUNDING: This study benefited from the support of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES – Overcoming vulnerability: life course perspectives, which is financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The authors are grateful to the Swiss National Science Foundation for its financial assistance.

Citation Key1028
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Persönliche Bilanzierung der Herausforderungen einer Verwitwung im Zeit- und Geschlechtervergleich

TitlePersönliche Bilanzierung der Herausforderungen einer Verwitwung im Zeit- und Geschlechtervergleich
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsHöpflinger, F, Spahni, S, Perrig-Chiello, P
JournalZeitschrift für Familienforschung
Volume25
Number3
Pagination267-285
Keywordsgender differences, psychosocial challenges, time effects, widowhood
Abstract

Research on bereavement has traditionally focussed on widowhood as either a social or individual event, but rarely under both perspectives. Furthermore, little is known whether existing research results mirror period or cohort effects. The aim of this article is to investigate constancies and changes in the retrospective perception of the challenges of widowhood of elderly women and men living in different decades in Switzerland. Data stem from three questionnaire studies with 1,197 widowed men and women (aged 65-102 years) carried out in 1979, 1994, and 2011. Results reveal that the subjective interpretations mirror the significant improvement of the economic and social situation of widowed individuals in Switzerland over the last decades, particularly for women. In contrast, no significant time effects can be observed with regard to the psychological challenges of marital loss in old age (redefinition of sense of life, feelings of loneliness). These findings suggest, that even in good socio-economic conditions widowhood remains psychologically a critical life event.

Citation Key1025
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Social origins and post-high school institutional pathways: A cumulative dis/advantage approach

TitleSocial origins and post-high school institutional pathways: A cumulative dis/advantage approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsGiudici, F, Pallas, AM
JournalLIVES Working Papers
Volume2014
Number30
Pagination1-28
PublisherNCCR LIVES
Place PublishedLausanne
ISSN2296-1658
Keywordscumulative dis/advantage hypothesis, life course pathways, sociology of education, transition out of high school
Abstract

The social stratification that takes place during the transition out of high school is traditionally explained with theoretical frameworks such as status attainment and social reproduction. In our paper, we suggest the cumulative dis/advantage hypothesis as an alternative theoretical and empirical approach that explains this divergence in institutional pathways as the result of the dynamic interplay between social institutions (in our case, schools) and individuals' resources.
We use data from the NLSY79 in order to compute institutional pathways (defined by educational and occupational status) of 9200 high school graduates. Optimal Matching Analysis and Cluster Analysis generated a typology of life course pathways. Our results show that both ascribed characteristics and students’ high school characteristics and resources are predictors of post-high school pathways.

DOI10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2014.30
Citation Key1024

Forschungsdossier: Verwitwung im Alter

TitleForschungsdossier: Verwitwung im Alter
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Spahni, S, Margelisch, K, Knöpfli, B
Pagination1-19
Date Published11/2013
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
URLhttp://www.entwicklung.psy.unibe.ch/content/team/ppc/ausgewaehlte_publikationen/index_ger.html
Citation Key1020

Forschungsdossier: Trennung und Scheidung

TitleForschungsdossier: Trennung und Scheidung
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Knöpfli, B, Margelisch, K, Spahni, S
Pagination1-25
Date Published11/2013
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
URLhttp://www.entwicklung.psy.unibe.ch/content/team/ppc/ausgewaehlte_publikationen/index_ger.html
Citation Key1019

Forschungsdossier: Langjährig verheiratete Frauen und Männer - ein psychosoziales Portrait

TitleForschungsdossier: Langjährig verheiratete Frauen und Männer - ein psychosoziales Portrait
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Margelisch, K, Knöpfli, B, Spahni, S
Pagination1-23
PublisherUniversity of Bern
Place PublishedBern
URLhttp://www.entwicklung.psy.unibe.ch/content/team/ppc/ausgewaehlte_publikationen/index_ger.html
Citation Key1018

Sense of Coherence and job characteristics in predicting burnout in a South African sample

TitleSense of Coherence and job characteristics in predicting burnout in a South African sample
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsJohnston, C, de Bruin, GP, Geldenhuys, M, Györkös, C, Massoudi, K, Rossier, J
JournalSouth African Journal of Industrial Psychology
Volume39
Number1
Pagination1-9
Date Published10/2013
Abstract

Orientation: Research that considers the effects of individual characteristics and job characteristics jointly in burnout is necessary, especially when one considers the possibility of curvilinear relationships between job characteristics and burnout.

Research purpose: This study examines the contribution of sense of coherence (SOC) and job characteristics to predicting burnout by considering direct and moderating effects.

Motivation for this study: Understanding the relationships of individual and job characteristics with burnout is necessary for preventing burnout. It also informs the design of interventions.

Research design, approach and method: The participants were 632 working adults (57% female) in South Africa. The measures included the Job Content Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analysed the data using hierarchical multiple regression with the enter method.

Main findings: Job characteristics and SOC show the expected direct effects on burnout. SOC has a direct negative effect on burnout. Job demands and supervisor social support show nonlinear relationships with burnout. SOC moderates the effect of demands on burnout and has a protective function so that the demands-burnout relationship differs for those with high and low SOC.

Practical/managerial implications: The types of effects, the shape of the stressor-strain relationship and the different contributions of individual and job characteristics have implications for designing interventions.

Contribution/value add: SOC functions differently when combined with demands, control and support. These different effects suggest that it is not merely the presence or absence of a job characteristic that is important for well-being outcomes but how people respond to its presence or absence.

DOI10.4102/sajip.v39i1.1096
Citation Key1017
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Späte Scheidungen: Fakten, Gründe und Auswirkungen. Ein interdisziplinärer Blick auf Ergebnisse einer Schweizer Studie

TitleSpäte Scheidungen: Fakten, Gründe und Auswirkungen. Ein interdisziplinärer Blick auf Ergebnisse einer Schweizer Studie
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPerrig-Chiello, P, Knöpfli, B, Gloor, U
JournalThe Journal of Family Practice
Number4
Pagination845-866
KeywordsAlter, Auswirkungen, causes, conséquences, divorce, genre, Geschlecht, Gründe, langjährige Ehe, personnes âgées, Scheidung
Abstract

Zusammenfassung: Scheidungen im Alter sind eine zunehmende gesellschaftliche Realität, allerdings wurde dieses Phänomen bislang kaum wissenschaftlich untersucht. In diesem Beitrag werden neueste Forschungsergebnisse einer Schweizer Studie vorgestellt, welche zeigen, dass späte Scheidungen ein einschneidendes kritisches Lebensereignis mit multiplen Gründen und mannigfachen negativen Auswirkungen auf persönlicher, familialer und sozialer Ebene ist. Allerdings gibt es grosse individuelle Unterschiede, insbesondere Geschlechterunterschiede, hinsichtlich der Gründe und auch bezüglich der psychosozialen Adaptation. Das Ausleuchten derForschungsresultate trägt nicht nur zu einem besseren Verständnis des Phänomens bei, sondern liefert auch Grundlagen für die familienrechtliche Praxis.

Résumé: Malgré le fait que les taux de divorces après un long mariage sont en constante augmentation, ce phénomène n’a guère été un objet de recherche. Dans cette contribution, des résultats d’une étude suisse sont présentés qui démontrent qu’un divorce après un long mariage est un événement critique avec multiples conséquences négatives sur le plan individuel, familial et social. Toutefois, il existe de grandes différences individuelles, notamment des différences de genre en ce qui concerne les raisons et l’adaptation psychosociale. L’analyse de ces résultats ne contribue pas seulement à une meilleure compréhension du phénomène, mais livre en même temps une base importante pour la pratique du droit familial.

Citation Key1015
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Trajectoires de jeunes bénéficiaires de l'aide sociale en Suisse

TitleTrajectoires de jeunes bénéficiaires de l'aide sociale en Suisse
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsBonvin, J-M, Dif-Pradalier, M, Rosenstein, E
JournalAgora débats/jeunesses
Volume65
Issue3
Pagination61
Date Published2013
ISSN1268-5666
Abstract

Dans le cadre de cette contribution, nous nous proposons d’étudier l’impact des politiques sociales sur les trajectoires de jeunes en situation de rupture, selon l’approche par les capacités développée par Amartya Sen. L’article se base sur une analyse approfondie du programme FORJAD (Formation pour jeunes adultes en difficulté), initié dans le canton de Vaud (Suisse) à l’attention des jeunes adultes (18-25 ans) bénéficiaires de l’aide sociale. L’objectif est de mettre au jour la base normative de ce programme pour saisir son impact sur les trajectoires de vie et les capabilités de ses bénéficiaires.

URLhttp://www.cairn.info/revue-agora-debats-jeunesses-2013-3-page-61.htm
DOI10.3917/agora.065.0061
Citation Key1014
Refereed DesignationRefereed

Searching for typical life trajectories applied to childbirth histories

TitleSearching for typical life trajectories applied to childbirth histories
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsGabadinho, A, Ritschard, G
EditorLevy, R, Widmer, E
Book TitleGendered life courses between individualization and standardization. A European approach applied to Switzerland
Pagination287-312
PublisherLIT Verlag
Place PublishedVienna
Citation Key1001

Contemporary issues in exploratory data mining in the behavioral sciences

TitleContemporary issues in exploratory data mining in the behavioral sciences
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsMcArdle, JJ, Ritschard, G
Series TitleQuantitative Methodology Series
Number of Pages496
PublisherRoutledge
Place PublishedLondon & New York
ISBN Number978-0-415-81706-6
Citation Key1000

Age of tracking and the smoothness of upper secondary school transitions

TitleAge of tracking and the smoothness of upper secondary school transitions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsLatina, J, Ramirez, J
JournalUniversity of Geneva Working Papers
Volume2012
Pagination1-18
Place PublishedGeneva
Keywordseducation, relative educational quality, tracking, transitions, treatment effect
Abstract

Middle school tracking is a common feature of many counrties' school system. In this paper, we examine if a one-year delay in middle school tracking influences the probability of track changes at the upper secondary level, using panel data for Geneva (Switzerland) over the period 1993-2007. We tyke advantage of a natural experiment, whereby a group of middle schools tracked their students a year later than the rest of schools. Because of specific conditions, we argue that selection into treatment is independent of potential outcome and, therefore, use a regression design to identify the average treatment effect. Both linear probability and panel data models estimate a small but significant negative impact of delayed middle-school tracking on the smoothness of upper secondary school transitions. However, we find that this negative effect of a later tracking decreases with the level of performance. We explain this result as a by-product of the "big-fish-little-pond" effect.

Citation Key999

Doing and undoing gender at work: Managing masculinities in contrasting occupational settings

TitleDoing and undoing gender at work: Managing masculinities in contrasting occupational settings
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsZinn, I
EditorGregersdotter, K, Hållén, N
Book TitleFemininities and masculinities in action: On theory and practice in a moving field
Pagination175-196
PublisherInter-Disciplinary Press
Place PublishedOxford
ISBN Number978-1848881341
Citation Key998

Socialisation séquentielle et identité de genre liées à la transition de l'école à l'emploi

TitleSocialisation séquentielle et identité de genre liées à la transition de l'école à l'emploi
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsGauthier, J-A, Gianettoni, L
JournalSwiss Journal of Sociology
Volume39
Number1
Pagination33-55
Citation Key997

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